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Shabbath

🏷  Semitic Talmud text interlinear spook law · text   —   by Gerry · Sep 2023 · 88924 words

The Shabbath chapter of Mishnah & Talmud specifies countless things you may do or not do on Sabbath, since work is forbidden on that day. But šbt “Sabbath” puns with ṣbˀwt “war”, and secretly the very long chapter is really about how to manufacture a war: How to hoax up fake reasons for war, how to stir up the masses for violence, and how palace-bred aristocratic cowards can mingle with the cannonfodder troops without giving away that they’re just pathetic fraudsters.

Introduction

In Hebrew, šbˁt “seven” puns with šbt “rest”. That’s why God rests from work on the seventh day, named šbt Sabbath for the “rest”, which has been made a custom for everyone. I am personally very grateful for this tradition.

But as usual, the Talmud exaggerates this useful law into the weird & ridiculous. The tractate Shabbath lists countless small household actions which are forbidden as “work”, like heating water or lighting lamps. Plus even more particularizations & exemptions. Like, you cannot light candles on Sabbath with “cedar-bast” or “desert-grass”, but only with the “wings of a dove”. Strangeness abounds.

And as usual, the reason is secret pun-encryption: šbt for “rest” puns with ṣbˀwt for “war”. The Shabbath chapter is really about waging a fake war, and profiteering from it. Seeing how there’s no advice on real external threats, I’d say most wars in history were fakes. The Shabbath chapter explains how the ruling scum can set up such a scam:

This is all encrypted through tedious laws saying what work one mustn’t do on Sabbath, or mustn’t start right before Sabbath. Very frequently, the “kindling” of fires on Sabbath is used to encrypt the “kindling” of a war. Greek loanwords are also used. These are the most important puns:

That gay rulers prefer to surround themselves with gay soldiers is a pattern that’s still observable today, as proven by Miles: Key roles in manufactured wars are typically played by visibly gay “special” forces, like Mussolini’s shirtless blackshirts or the Enola Gay crew in tight shorts.

Many more sections follow, but this is what I have decrypted so far.

How to read this

Profiteering from wars

For a war, one needs deceptions on the inside & outside.

Shabbat 1.1.a

Encrypted: To bring forth a war, one needs deceptions which are combined from the inside, and deceptions which are combined from the outside.

Official: The things that can be brought on Sabbath are two kinds, which are four when being inside, and two kinds which are four when being outside.

To bring forth
יצא yṣˀ: bring forth, appear
יציאות yṣyˀwt
יצא yṣˀ: go out, bring out
The [things that can] be brought

a war,
צבאות ṣbˀwt: armies, war, warfare
השבת hšbt
שבת šbt: Sabbath, rest
on Sabbath

[one needs] deceptions
סטיה sṭyh: deviation, deceit; ־ים -ym: (plural)
שתים štym
שתים štym: two
[are] two [kinds],

which are
ש־ š-: which; הן hn: they
שהן šhn
ש־ š-: which; הן hn: they
which are

combined
ערב ˁrb: mix, combine, confuse
ארבע ˀrbˁ
ארבע ˀrbˁ: four
four

[from] the inside,
ב־ b-: in; פנים pnym: inside
בפנים bpnym
ב־ b-: in; פנים pnym: inside
[when being] inside,

and deceptions
סטיה sṭyh: deviation, deceit; ־ים -ym: (plural)
ושתים wštym
שתים štym: two
and two [kinds]

which are
ש־ š-: which; הן hn: they
שהן šhn
ש־ š-: which; הן hn: they
which are

combined
ערב ˁrb: mix, combine, confuse
ארבע ˀrbˁ
ארבע ˀrbˁ: four
four

[from] the outside.
ב־ b-: on; חוץ ḥwṣ: outside
בחוץ bḥwṣ
ב־ b-: on; חוץ ḥwṣ: outside
[when being] outside.

Shabbat 1.1.a

If a guilty party seemingly invades, the local ruler appears innocent.

Shabbat 1.1.b

Encrypted: How so? A blameworthy party is set up outside, and the ruler of the affected land is inside. If extends the blameworthy party its hand inside and shows itself in the middle of the possessions of the ruler of the land, or takes something from the inside and carries it out, then the blameworthy party appears responsible, and the ruler of the land appears free from guilt when he wages war.

Official: How so? A poor person stands outside, and the owner of the house inside. If extends the poor person his hand inside and gives something into the middle of the hand of the owner of the house, or takes something from the middle and carries it outside, then the poor person is guilty and the owner of the house is exempt from guilt for working on Sabbath.

How so?
כיצד kyṣd: how
כיצד kyṣd
כיצד kyṣd: how
How so?

A blameworthy [party]
אנה ˀnh: cause, pretext; עון ˁwn: guilty, blame; און ˀwn: power
העני hˁny
עני ˁny: poor; ענה ˁnh: become poor; עוני ˁwny: poverty
A poor [person]

is set up
עמד ˁmd: establish, set up, present
עומד ˁwmd
עמד ˁmd: stand
stands

outside,
ב־ b-: on; חוץ ḥwṣ: outside
בחוץ bḥwṣ
ב־ b-: on; חוץ ḥwṣ: outside
outside,

and the ruler
בעל bˁl: lord, master, rule
ובעל wbˁl
בעל bˁl: owner
and the owner

of the [affected] land
ביתא bytˀ: place, land, territory
הבית hbyt
בית byt: house
of the house

is inside.
ב־ b-: in; פנים pnym: inside
בפנים bpnym
ב־ b-: in; פנים pnym: inside
inside.

[If] extends
פשט pšṭ: stretch, extend
פשט pšṭ
פשט pšṭ: stretch, extend
[If] extends

the blameworthy [party]
אנה ˀnh: cause, pretext; עון ˁwn: guilty, blame; און ˀwn: power
העני hˁny
עני ˁny: poor; ענה ˁnh: become poor; עוני ˁwny: poverty
the poor [person]

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

its hand
יד yd: hand, reach
ידו ydw
יד yd: hand, reach
his hand

inside
ל־ l-: to; פנים pnym: inside
לפנים lpnym
ל־ l-: to; פנים pnym: inside
inside

and shows itself
נתן ntn: show, display
ונתן wntn
נתן ntn: give
and gives [something]

in the middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
לתוך ltwk
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into the middle

of the possessions
יד yd: power, possession, borders
ידו ydw
יד yd: hand, reach
of the hand

of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
of

the ruler
בעל bˁl: owner
בעל bˁl
בעל bˁl: owner
the owner

of the land,
ביתא bytˀ: place, land, territory
הבית hbyt
בית byt: house
of the house,

or
או ˀw: or
או ˀw
או ˀw: or
or

takes [something]
ש־ š-: which; נטל nṭl: receive, take
שנטל šnṭl
ש־ š-: which; נטל nṭl: receive, take
takes [something]

from the inside
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: middle
מתוכה mtwkh
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: middle
from the middle

and carries [it] out,
יצא yṣˀ: carry out
והוציא whwṣyˀ
יצא yṣˀ: carry out
and carries [it] outside,

[then] the blameworthy [party]
אנה ˀnh: cause, pretext; עון ˁwn: guilty, blame; און ˀwn: power
העני hˁny
עני ˁny: poor; ענה ˁnh: become poor; עוני ˁwny: poverty
[then] the poor [person]

[appears] responsible,
חוב ḥwb: guilty, responsible
חיב ḥyb
חוב ḥwb: guilty, responsible
is guilty

and the ruler
בעל bˁl: owner
ובעל wbˁl
בעל bˁl: owner
and the owner

of the land
ביתא bytˀ: place, land, territory
הבית hbyt
בית byt: house
of the house

[appears] free [from guilt when he wages war].
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
פטור pṭwr
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
is exempt [from guilt for working on Sabbath].

Shabbat 1.1.b

Shabbat 1.1.c

Encrypted: But if would extend the ruler of the land his power outside and show himself in the middle of the possessions of the other power, or take something from the middle by initiative, then the ruler of the land would appear responsible, and the other power would appear free from guilt.

Official: If extends the owner of the house his hand outside and gives something into the middle of the hand of the poor person, or takes something from the middle carrying it in, then the owner of the house is guilty and the poor person is exempt from guilt.

[But if would] extend
פשט pšṭ: stretch, extend
פשט pšṭ
פשט pšṭ: stretch, extend
[If] extends

the ruler
בעל bˁl: owner
בעל bˁl
בעל bˁl: owner
the owner

of the land
ביתא bytˀ: place, land, territory
הבית hbyt
בית byt: house
of the house

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

his power
יד yd: hand, reach
ידו ydw
יד yd: hand, reach
his hand

outside
ל־ l-: to; חוץ ḥwṣ: outside
לחוץ lḥwṣ
ל־ l-: to; חוץ ḥwṣ: outside
outside

and show himself
נתן ntn: show, display
ונתן wntn
נתן ntn: give
and gives [something]

in the middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
לתוך ltwk
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into the middle

of the possessions
יד yd: power, possession, borders
ידו ydw
יד yd: hand, reach
of the hand

of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
of

the [other] power,
אנה ˀnh: cause, pretext; עון ˁwn: guilty, blame; און ˀwn: power
עני ˁny
עני ˁny: poor; ענה ˁnh: become poor; עוני ˁwny: poverty
the poor [person],

or
או ˀw: or
או ˀw
או ˀw: or
or

take [something]
ש־ š-: which; נטל nṭl: receive, take
שנטל šnṭl
ש־ š-: which; נטל nṭl: receive, take
takes [something]

from the middle
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: middle
מתוכה mtwkh
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: middle
from the middle

by initiative,
כנס kns: enter, gather, initiate
והכניס whknys
כנס kns: bring home, bring in
carrying [it] in,

[then] the ruler
בעל bˁl: owner
בעל bˁl
בעל bˁl: owner
[then] the owner

of the land
ביתא bytˀ: place, land, territory
הבית hbyt
בית byt: house
of the house

[would appear] responsible,
חיב ḥyb: guilty, obliged
חיב ḥyb
חיב ḥyb: guilty, obliged
is guilty

and the [other] power
אנה ˀnh: cause, pretext; עון ˁwn: guilty, blame; און ˀwn: power
והעני whˁny
עני ˁny: poor; ענה ˁnh: become poor; עוני ˁwny: poverty
and the poor [person]

[would appear] free [from guilt].
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
פטור pṭwr
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
is exempt [from guilt].

Shabbat 1.1.c

With a war, the ruler appears innocent with new burdens & taxes.

Shabbat 1.1.d

Encrypted: And if extends the blameworthy party his power inside, and if then imposes burdens the owner of the land from the oppressed, or imposes paying of new taxes onto the oppressed for alleged costs, then both these actions appear free from guilt.

Official: And if extends the poor person his hand inside, and if then takes the owner of the house from the middle, or gives something into the middle and the poor person carries it out, then both of them are exempt from guilt.

[And if] extends
פשט pšṭ: stretch, extend
פשט pšṭ
פשט pšṭ: stretch, extend
[And if] extends

the blameworthy [party]
עני ˁny: poor
העני hˁny
עני ˁny: poor
the poor [person]

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

his power
יד yd: power, possession, borders
ידו ydw
יד yd: hand, reach
his hand

inside,
ל־ l-: to; פנים pnym: inside
לפנים lpnym
ל־ l-: to; פנים pnym: inside
inside,

and [if then] imposes burdens
נטל nṭl: lift, impose, burden
ונטל wnṭl
נטל nṭl: receive, take
and [if then] takes

the owner
בעל bˁl: owner
בעל bˁl
בעל bˁl: owner
the owner

of the land
ביתא bytˀ: place, land, territory
הבית hbyt
בית byt: house
of the house

from the oppressed,
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
מתוכה mtwkh
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: middle
from the middle,

or
או ˀw: or
או ˀw
או ˀw: or
or

imposes paying [of new taxes]
ש־ š-: make; נתן ntn: pay, impose
שנתן šntn
ש־ š-: make; נתן ntn: give
gives [something]

onto the oppressed
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוכה ltwkh
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into the middle

[for alleged] costs,
הוצאה hwṣˀh: expenditure, cost, transfer
והוציא whwṣyˀ
הוצאה hwṣˀh: carrying out
and [the poor person?] carries [it] out,

[then] both [these actions]
שני šny: both; הם hm: them
שניהם šnyhm
שני šny: both; הם hm: them
[then] both [of them]

[appear] free [from guilt].
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
פטורין pṭwryn
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
are exempt [from guilt].

Shabbat 1.1.d

Shabbat 1.1.e

Encrypted: Likewise, if extends the ruler of the land his power outside, and imposes new burdens the other power from its own oppressed, or imposes paying of new taxes onto the oppressed for revenue, then both these actions appear free from guilt.

Official: Likewise, if extends the owner of the house his hand outside, and takes the poor person from the middle, or gives something into the middle carrying it in, then both of them are exempt from guilt.

[Likewise, if] extends
פשט pšṭ: stretch, extend
פשט pšṭ
פשט pšṭ: stretch, extend
[Likewise, if] extends

the ruler
בעל bˁl: owner
בעל bˁl
בעל bˁl: owner
the owner

of the land
ביתא bytˀ: place, land, territory
הבית hbyt
בית byt: house
of the house

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

his power
יד yd: power, possession, borders
ידו ydw
יד yd: hand, reach
his hand

outside,
ל־ l-: to; חוץ ḥwṣ: outside
לחוץ lḥwṣ
ל־ l-: to; חוץ ḥwṣ: outside
outside,

and imposes [new] burdens
נטל nṭl: lift, impose, burden
ונטל wnṭl
נטל nṭl: receive, take
and takes

the [other] power
אנה ˀnh: cause, pretext; עון ˁwn: guilty, blame; און ˀwn: power
העני hˁny
עני ˁny: poor
the poor [person]

from [its own] oppressed,
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
מתוכה mtwkh
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: middle
from the middle,

or
או ˀw: or
או ˀw
או ˀw: or
or

imposes paying [of new taxes]
ש־ š-: make; נתן ntn: pay, impose
שנתן šntn
ש־ š-: make; נתן ntn: give
gives [something]

onto the oppressed
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוכה ltwkh
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into the middle

[for] revenue,
הכנסה hknsh: income, revenue
והכניס whknys
הכנסה hknsh: carrying in, putting in
carrying [it] in,

[then] both [these actions]
שני šny: both; הם hm: them
שניהם šnyhm
שני šny: both; הם hm: them
[then] both of them

[appear] free [from guilt].
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
פטורין pṭwryn
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
are exempt [from guilt].

Shabbat 1.1.e

Considering safety for the nobles

One mustn’t stage this too close to abodes of noble families.

Shabbat 1.2.a

Encrypted: However, one must not put into place this disguised party turning toward the border too close to the dwelling places for the noble families.

Official: There must not sit a man before a barber from close to the Minhah prayer until the Tefillah prayer.

[However, one must] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[There must] not

put into place
ישב yšb: put in place
ישב yšb
ישב yšb: sit, place
sit

this disguised [party]
דמא dmˀ: resemble, appear in disguise
אדם ˀdm
אדם ˀdm: man
a man

turning toward [??]
ל־ l-: to; פני pny: face, front, appearance, turn toward
לפני lpny
ל־ l-: to; פני pny: face, front
before

the border [??]
ספר spr: border, border region, boundary, frontier
הספר hspr
ספר spr: barber
a barber

[too] close
סמך smk: close, adjoining
סמוך smwk
סמך smk: close, adjoining
[from?] close

to the dwelling places
ל־ l-: to; מנחה mnḥh: resting place, dwelling place
למנחה lmnḥh
ל־ l-: to; מנחה mnḥh: Minhah; מ־ m-: of; נחה nḥh: rest, relief
to the Minhah prayer

for
עד ˁd: to, in behalf of, for
עד ˁd
עד ˁd: until, while
until

the [noble] families.
ש־ š-: which; טפלא ṭplˀ: children, family, household
שיתפלל šytpll
ש־ š-: which; תפלה tplh: Tefillah, prayer
the Tefillah prayer.

Shabbat 1.2.a

One mustn’t endanger peers, but if idiots still get hurt, cover it up and proceed.

Shabbat 1.2.b

Encrypted: There must generally not endanger this disguise any entrusted man, and not any comrade and not any spouse, and not any lord. But if one has already started, one does not need to stop just for safety. One must stop to cover up the accidents of idiots, but does not stop for the fools themselves.

Official: There must also not enter a man a bathhouse, and not a tannery, and not start eating, and not sit down for judgement. But if one has already started, one does not need to stop. One must stop to recite the verse of the Shema prayer, but does not have to stop for the Tefillah prayer.

[There must generally] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[There must also] not

endanger
סכן skn: danger, endanger
יכנס ykns
כנס kns: go in, enter
enter

this disguise
דמא dmˀ: resemble, appear in disguise
אדם ˀdm
אדם ˀdm: man
a man

[any] entrusted [man],
ל־ l-: to; מרחץ mrḥṣ: allow, permit; מ־ m-: of; רחץ rḥṣ: trust, rely, safe
למרחץ lmrḥṣ
ל־ l-: to; מרחץ mrḥṣ: bath
a bathhouse,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

[any] comrade
ל־ l-: to; בר זוג br zwg: comrade, colleague, mate, spouse
לברסקי lbrsqy
ל־ l-: to; ברסקי brsqy: byrsikos, tannery
a tannery [???],

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

[any] spouse,
ל־ l-: to; כלה klh: bride, daughter-in-law
לאכל lˀkl
ל־ l-: to; אכל ˀkl: eat
[start?] eating [??],

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

[any] lord.
ל־ l-: to; אדון ˀdwn: master, lord, possessor, guardian
לדין ldyn
ל־ l-: to; דין dyn: judgement
[sit down for] judgement.

But if [one]
אם ˀm: if, when
ואם wˀm
אם ˀm: if, when
But if [one]

has [already] started,
תחלה tḥlh: start
התחילו htḥylw
תחלה tḥlh: start
has [already] started,

[one does] not [need to]
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[one does] not [need to]

stop [just for safety].
מ־ m-: of; פסק psq: stop
מפסיקין mpsyqyn
מ־ m-: of; פסק psq: stop
stop.

[One must] stop
מ־ m-: of; פסק psq: stop
מפסיקים mpsyqym
מ־ m-: of; פסק psq: stop
[One must] stop

to cover up
ל־ l-: to; קרי qry: cover
לקרות lqrwt
ל־ l-: to; קרי qry: call, recite
to recite

the accidents
קריא qryˀ: accident, incident, misfortune, mishap
קריאת qryˀt
קריא qryˀ: verse
the verse

of idiots,
שעמום šˁmwm: idiocy, idiot
שמע šmˁ
שמע šmˁ: Shema
of the Shema prayer,

but does not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
but does not [have to]

stop
מ־ m-: of; פסק psq: stop
מפסיקים mpsyqym
מ־ m-: of; פסק psq: stop
stop

for the fools [themselves].
ל־ l-: for; תפלה tplh: folly; תפל tpl: foolish
לתפלה ltplh
ל־ l-: for; תפלה tplh: Tefillah, prayer
for the Tefillah prayer.

Shabbat 1.2.b

Preparing false flag hoaxes

Don’t let outsiders see the dress-up or the costumes.

Shabbat 1.3.a

Encrypted: There must also not come out the guilty party with their strike too close to the poor subjects, as perhaps someone would see them coming out from a domestic base. Also should not see any outsider the cloaking / decoration process. Also one may not allow anyone to scrutinize the dress-up.

Official: There must also not come out a tailor with his needle too close to falling darkness to the eve before Sabbath, as perhaps he may forget he brought it out and’d still have it on Sabbath. Also not a scribe with his writing pen. Also one may not delouse one’s garments.

[There must also] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[There must also] not

come out
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
יצא yṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
come out

the guilty [party]
חטי ḥṭy: guilty; חטא ḥṭˀ: guilt
החיט hḥyṭ
חיט ḥyṭ: tailor
a tailor

with their strike
ב־ b-: with; מחתא mḥtˀ: stroke, blow
במחטו bmḥṭw
ב־ b-: with; מחט mḥṭ: needle
with his needle

[too] close
סמך smk: close, adjoining
סמוך smwk
סמך smk: close, adjoining
[too] close

to the poor [subjects?],
ל־ l-: to; חשוך ḥšwk: dark, reduced, poor
לחשכה lḥškh
ל־ l-: to; חשך ḥšk: darkness, darken
to falling darkness [to the eve before Sabbath],

as perhaps
שמא šmˀ: lest, perhaps
שמא šmˀ
שמא šmˀ: lest, perhaps
as perhaps

[someone would] see
סכה skh: look, see
ישכח yškḥ
שכח škḥ: forget
he [may] forget

them coming out [from a domestic base].
יצא yṣˀ: go out, bring out
ויצא wyṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: go out, bring out
he brought [it] out [and’d still have it on Sabbath].

[Also should] not [see]
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
[Also] not

any outsider
ל־ l-: to; לבר lbr: outside, secular world
הלבלר hlblr
לבלר lblr: scribe, clerk
a scribe

the cloaking / decoration [process?].
ב־ b-: with; כלמוס klmws: chlamys, officer’s cloak; קלמסמס qlmsms: kalamis, hair decorations
בקלמוסו bqlmwsw
ב־ b-: with; קולמוס qwlmws: kalamos, scribal pen, writing pen
with his writing pen.

Also [one may] not [allow anyone]
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
Also [one may] not

to scrutinize
פלי ply: question, scrutinize
יפלה yplh
פלי ply: search, cleanse of lice
delouse

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

the dress-up.
כלי kly: dress, garment
כליו klyw
כלי kly: dress, garment
[one’s] garments.

Shabbat 1.3.a

A ruler may watch the show, but not join himself.

Shabbat 1.3.b

Encrypted: Also a ruler may not join the fake attack visibly. In truth they say: A high-level officer may see where the special dressings & arrangements are happening, but he himself may not join as he could be recognized.

Official: Also one may not read by the light of a candle. In truth they say: The supervisor may see where in the textbook the children are reading, but he himself may not read on Sabbath.

Also [a ruler may] not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
Also [one may] not

join
קרי qry: join, meet
יקרא yqrˀ
קרי qry: call, read
read

the [fake] attack
ל־ l-: to; אורע ˀwrˁ: meeting, encounter, attack
לאור lˀwr
ל־ l-: to; אור ˀwr: light
by the light

visibly.
נראה nrˀh: visible; נ־ n-: make; ראה rˀh: see
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
of a candle.

In truth
ב־ b-: in; אמת ˀmt: truth
באמת bˀmt
ב־ b-: in; אמת ˀmt: truth
In truth

[they] say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אמרו ˀmrw
אמר ˀmr: say
[they] say:

A [high-level] officer
חזן ḥzn: officer, superintendent
החזן hḥzn
חזן ḥzn: cantor, school governor
The supervisor

[may] see
ראה rˀh: see
רואה rwˀh
ראה rˀh: see
[may] see

where
היכן hykn: where
היכן hykn
היכן hykn: where
where [in the textbook]

the special dressings & arrangements
תקון tqwn: dress, fancy garb; תקן tqn: prepared, arranged, special dress
תינוקות tynwqwt
תנוק tnwq: boy, child
the children

are happening,
קרי qry: meet, happen
קוראים qwrˀym
קרי qry: call, read
are reading,

but
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
but

he himself
הוא hwˀ: he
הוא hwˀ
הוא hwˀ: he
he himself

[may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[may] not

join [as he could be recognized].
קרי qry: join, meet
יקרא yqrˀ
קרי qry: call, read
read [on Sabbath].

Shabbat 1.3.b

Shabbat 1.3.c

Encrypted: As was brought out to it this law: There may not be revealed the truth with a war, because would become familiar with it the outsider / people.

Official: As was brought out to it this law: There may not eat one afflicted with gonorrhea together with his woman afflicted with gonorrhea, because they would become used to the transgression.

As was brought out
כ־ k-: as, like; יצא yṣˀ: bring out
כיוצא kywṣˀ
כ־ k-: as, like; יצא yṣˀ: bring out
As was brought out

to it [this law]:
בו bw: in it
בו bw
בו bw: in it
to it [this law]:

[There may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[There may] not

be revealed
גלא glˀ: reveal
יאכל yˀkl
אכל ˀkl: eat
eat

the truth
יצבה yṣbh: truth
הזב hzb
זב zb: flux, gonorrhea
[one afflicted with] gonorrhea

with
עם ˁm: with, near
עם ˁm
עם ˁm: with, near
[together] with

a war,
צבא ṣbˀ: army, war, warfare
הזבה hzbh
זב zb: flux, gonorrhea
[his woman afflicted with] gonorrhea,

because
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
because

[would become] familiar with [it]
רגל rgl: accustomed to, used to, make familiar
הרגל hrgl
רגל rgl: accustomed to, used to, make familiar
[they would become] used to

the outsider / people.
ברא brˀ: outside; בריה bryh: man, people
עברה ˁbrh
עברה ˁbrh: transgression, sin
the transgression.

Shabbat 1.3.c

Do not let commoners see the fraud, all must be finished in one day.

Shabbat 1.4.a

Encrypted: And these were among the laws which were declared in the upper chambers of Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Garon when other lords went up to visit him.

Official: And these were among the laws which were declared in the upper chamber of Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Garon when other sages went up to visit him.

And these [were]
אלו ˀlw: these
ואלו wˀlw
אלו ˀlw: these
And these [were]

among
מן mn: from, among
מן mn
מן mn: from, among
among

the laws
הלכה hlkh: law, rule
ההלכות hhlkwt
הלכה hlkh: law, rule
the laws

which were declared
ש־ š-: which; אמר ˀmr: speak, say
שאמרו šˀmrw
ש־ š-: which; אמר ˀmr: speak, say
which were declared

in the upper chambers
ב־ b-: in; עליתא ˁlytˀ: upper chamber, upper story, loft
בעלית bˁlyt
ב־ b-: in; עליתא ˁlytˀ: upper chamber, upper story, loft
in the upper chamber

of Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Garon
חנניה בן חזקיה בן גריון ḥnnyh bn ḥzqyh bn grywn: Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Garon
חנניה בן חזקיה בן גריון ḥnnyh bn ḥzqyh bn grywn
חנניה בן חזקיה בן גריון ḥnnyh bn ḥzqyh bn grywn: Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Garon
of Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Garon

when [other lords] went up
כ־ k-: as; ש־ š-: make; עלה ˁlh: go up
כשעלו kšˁlw
כ־ k-: as; ש־ š-: make; עלה ˁlh: go up
when [other sages] went up

to visit [him].
ל־ l-: to; בקר bqr: attend, visit
לבקרו lbqrw
ל־ l-: to; בקר bqr: attend, visit
to visit [him].

Shabbat 1.4.a

Shabbat 1.4.b

Encrypted: There numbered more the school of Shammai than the school of Hillel, and in a meeting of rulers those things they decreed there on that day.

Official: There numbered more the school of Shammai than the school of Hillel, and eight and ten things they decreed there on that day.

[There] numbered
נ־ n-: make; מנה mnh: count, number
נמנו nmnw
נ־ n-: make; מנה mnh: count, number
[There] numbered

more
רב rb: much, many
ורבו wrbw
רב rb: much, many
more

the school
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
the school

of Shammai
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
שמאי šmˀy
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
of Shammai

than
על ˁl: to, than
על ˁl
על ˁl: to, than
than

the school
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
the school

of Hillel,
הלל hll: Hillel
הלל hll
הלל hll: Hillel
of Hillel,

and [in] a meeting [?]
זמן zmn: assemble, meet, plot together
ושמנה wšmnh
שמנה šmnh: eight
and eight

of rulers [?]
עצר ˁṣr: rule; עוצר ˁwṣr: ruler, sovereign
עשר ˁšr
עשר ˁšr: ten
and ten

[those] things
דבר dbr: speech, matter, thing
דברים dbrym
דבר dbr: speech, matter, thing
things

they decreed
גזר gzr: determine, decree
גזרו gzrw
גזר gzr: determine, decree
they decreed

there
בו bw: in it
בו bw
בו bw: in it
there

on that day.
ב־ b-: on; יום ywm: day
ביום bywm
ב־ b-: on; יום ywm: day
on that day.

Shabbat 1.4.b

Shabbat 1.5.a

Encrypted: The school of Shammai say: One may not let loose too much misery and horror and destruction, except when it can all be put on while on the same day. But the school of Hillel permit it.

Official: The school of Shammai say: One may not soak ink powder and dye powder and vetches on the eve to Sabbat, except when it still gets soaked right while on the same day. But the school of Hillel permit it.

The school
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
The school

of Shammai
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
שמאי šmˀy
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
of Shammai

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

let loose [too much]
שרה šrh: release, let loose
שורין šwryn
שרה šrh: immerse, soak, saturate
soak

misery
דוי dwy: grief, affliction, weaken, miserable
דיו dyw
דיו dyw: fluid, writing ink
ink [powder?]

and horror
שממון šmmwn: appalment, horror; שמם šmm: destroy, ruin
וסממנים wsmmnym
סממן smmn: paint, dye, colors
and dye [powder?]

and destruction,
קורצין qwrṣyn: destruction
וכרשינים wkršynym
כרשינה kršynh: vetch, horse-bean
and vetches [on the eve to Sabbat],

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

[it can all] be put on
ש־ š-: make; יסר ysr: tie, put on
שישורו šyšwrw
ש־ š-: make; ישר yšr: smooth, straight, right
[it still gets soaked] right

while
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
מבעוד mbˁwd
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
while

on the [same] day.
יום ywm: time
יום ywm
יום ywm: day
on the [same] day.

But the school
בית byt: house, school
ובית wbyt
בית byt: house, school
But the school

of Hillel
הלל hll: Hillel
הלל hll
הלל hll: Hillel
of Hillel

permit [it].
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתירין mtyryn
נתר ntr: permit, free
permit [it].

Shabbat 1.5.a

Shabbat 1.6.a

Encrypted: The house of Shammai say: One may not show the fraud to one of the ordinary oppressed folk of servitude, except when they can be confused about it while on the same day.

Official: The house of Shammai say: One may not give wet bundles of flax into the middle of the oven, except when they can be steamed out while on the same day.

The house
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
The house

of Shammai
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
שמאי šmˀy
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
of Shammai

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

show
נתן ntn: show, present
נותנין nwtnyn
נתן ntn: give, take
give

the fraud
אונאה ˀwnˀh: wrong, fraudulent representation
אונין ˀwnyn
אונין ˀwnyn: bundles of wet flax
wet bundles

[to one] of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
of

the ordinary
פשוט pšwṭ: simple, ordinary, usual
פשתן pštn
פשתה pšth: flax, linen
flax

oppressed [folk]
ל־ l-: belonging to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוך ltwk
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into the middle

of servitude,
ת־ t-: of; ניר nyr: servitude
התנור htnwr
תנור tnwr: stove, oven
of the oven,

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

they [can] be confused [about it]
ש־ š-: make; בלל bll: confuse, confound
שיהבילו šyhbylw
ש־ š-: which; הביל hbyl: steamy, humid
they [can] be steamed out [?]

while
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
מבעוד mbˁwd
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
while

on the [same] day.
יום ywm: day
יום ywm
יום ywm: day
on the [same] day.

Shabbat 1.6.a

Shabbat 1.6.b

Encrypted: And one may also not show it like this to guards of the city, except when they really absorb the deception. But the school of Hillel permit it.

Official: And one may also not give like this wool into the kettle, except when it can absorb the colored look on the same day. But the school of Hillel permit it.

And [one may also] not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
And [one may also] not

[show it like this]
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
[give like this]

[to] guards
שמר šmr: watch, guard; שומר šwmr: watchman
הצמר hṣmr
צמר ṣmr: thick, wool
wool

of the city,
ל־ l-: belonging to; עיר ˁyr: town, city
ליורה lywrh
ל־ l-: to; יורה ywrh: boiler, kettle
into the kettle,

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

[they really] absorb
ש־ š-: make; קלט qlṭ: absorb
שיקלט šyqlṭ
ש־ š-: make; קלט qlṭ: absorb
[it can] absorb

the deception.
אונאה ˀwnˀh: deception, deceit, fraud
העין hˁyn
עין ˁyn: eye, appearance, color
the colored look [on the same day].

But the school
בית byt: house, school
ובית wbyt
בית byt: house, school
But the school

of Hillel
הלל hll: Hillel
הלל hll
הלל hll: Hillel
of Hillel

permit [it].
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתירין mtyryn
נתר ntr: permit, free
permit [it].

Shabbat 1.6.b

For the actors, use camps that can be quickly taken down.

Shabbat 1.6.c

Encrypted: The house of Shammai say: One may not spread out camps for the show people and the veiled people and secret watchmen, except when they can still be emptied while on the same day. But the school of Hillel permit it.

Official: The house of Shammai say: One may not spread out nets & traps for beasts and birds and fish, except when they can still be caught while on the same day. But the school of Hillel permit it.

The house
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
The house

of Shammai
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
שמאי šmˀy
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
of Shammai

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

spread out
פרש prš: spread out
פורשין pwršyn
פרש prš: spread out
spread out

camps
מצודה mṣwdh: fort, fortress, stronghold
מצודות mṣwdwt
מצודה mṣwdh: net, trap
nets & traps

[for] the show [people]
חוה ḥwh: show
חיה ḥyh
חיה ḥyh: beast
[for] beasts

and the veiled [people]
עפף ˁpp: double, wrapping; עיפא ˁypˀ: cover, veil
ועופות wˁwpwt
עוף ˁwp: bird
and birds

and [secret] watchmen,
דק dq: thin curtain; דיק dyq: watchman
ודגים wdgym
דג dg: fish
and fish,

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

[they can still] be emptied
ש־ š-: make; צדי ṣdy: deserted, destroyed, empty
שיצודו šyṣwdw
ש־ š-: make; צוד ṣwd: hunt, catch
[they can still] be caught

while
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
מבעוד mbˁwd
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
while

on the [same] day.
יום ywm: day
יום ywm
יום ywm: day
on the [same] day.

But the school
בית byt: house, school
ובית wbyt
בית byt: house, school
But the school

of Hillel
הלל hll: Hillel
הלל hll
הלל hll: Hillel
of Hillel

permit [it].
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתירין mtyryn
נתר ntr: permit, free
permit [it].

Shabbat 1.6.c

Strangers may not know about the fake, except if they’re rulers.

Shabbat 1.7.a

Encrypted: The house of Shammai say: One may not make all this known to a stranger, and may not tell anything to him, and may not choose a role in the fake on him, except when he is raised to be ruler of the place of the war. But the school of Hillel permit it.

Official: The house of Shammai say: One may not sell something to a non-Jewish stranger, and may not make him carry something with him, and may not lift something on him, except when the toil of carrying is to a place nearby. But the school of Hillel permit it.

The house
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
The house

of Shammai
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
שמאי šmˀy
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
of Shammai

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

[make all this] known
מכר mkr: known, recognized, acquainted
מוכרין mwkryn
מכר mkr: sell, sold
sell [something]

to a stranger,
ל־ l-: to; נכר nkr: unknown, stranger
לנכרי lnkry
ל־ l-: to; נכר nkr: unknown, stranger
to a [non-Jewish?] stranger,

and [may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
and [may] not

tell [anything]
תנא tnˀ: tell, relate, teach
טוענין ṭwˁnyn
טען ṭˁn: carry, burden, load
make him carry [something]

to him,
עם ˁm: with
עמו ˁmw
עם ˁm: with
with him,

and [may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
and [may] not

choose [a role in the fake?]
מ־ m-: of; גבי gby: choose, select
מגביהין mgbyhyn
מ־ m-: of; גבה gbh: raise, high, lift
lift [something]

on him,
על ˁl: on, upon
עליו ˁlyw
על ˁl: on, upon
on him,

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

[he is] raised to be ruler
ש־ š-: make; גאי gˀy: rise, exalted, lord it; גאה gˀh: ruler
שיגיע šygyˁ
ש־ š-: make; יגע ygˁ: toil, weary
the toil [of carrying]

of the place
ל־ l-: to; מקום mqwm: place
למקום lmqwm
ל־ l-: to; מקום mqwm: place
[is] to a place

of the war.
קרב qrb: war, battle, soldier
קרוב qrwb
קרוב qrwb: near, close
nearby.

But the school
בית byt: house, school
ובית wbyt
בית byt: house, school
But the school

of Hillel
הלל hll: Hillel
הלל hll
הלל hll: Hillel
of Hillel

permit [it].
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתירין mtyryn
נתר ntr: permit, free
permit [it].

Shabbat 1.7.a

Do not show the dress-up costumes to servants, except your own.

Shabbat 1.8.a

Encrypted: The house of Shammai say: One may not show the dress-up skins to a worker, and not the fake dresses to an oppressed who is a stranger, except when any suspicion can still be smoothened out while on the same day. the school of Hillel permit it with one’s own servants.

Official: The house of Shammai say: One may not give animal skins to a non-Jewish worker, and not dresses to a laundryman who is a non-Jewish stranger, except when they can still be smoothened out while on the same day. But in all these, the school of Hillel permit it with the sun still being up.

The house
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
The house

of Shammai
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
שמאי šmˀy
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
of Shammai

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

show
נתן ntn: show, present
נותנין nwtnyn
נתן ntn: give
give

the [dress-up] skins
עור ˁwr: skin, hide
עורות ˁwrwt
עור ˁwr: skin, hide
[animal] skins

to a worker,
ל־ l-: to; עבד ˁbd: work, labor, servant
לעבדן lˁbdn
ל־ l-: to; עבד ˁbd: work, labor, servant
to a [non-Jewish?] worker,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

the [fake] dresses
כלי kly: dress, garment
כלים klym
כלי kly: dress, garment
dresses

to an oppressed
ל־ l-: to; חבץ ḥbṣ: press, oppressed, crowd
לכובס lkwbs
ל־ l-: to; כובס kwbs: laundryman
to a laundryman

who is a stranger,
נכר nkr: unknown, stranger
נכרי nkry
נכר nkr: unknown, stranger
who is a [non-Jewish?] stranger,

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

[any suspicion can still] be smoothened out
שעשע šˁšˁ: smooth
שיעשו šyˁšw
שעשע šˁšˁ: smooth
[they can still] be smoothened out

while
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
מבעוד mbˁwd
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
while

on the [same] day.
יום ywm: day
יום ywm
יום ywm: day
on the [same] day.

 
ב־ b-: in; כלן kln: all
ובכלן wbkln
ב־ b-: in; כלן kln: all
But in all [these],

the school
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
the school

of Hillel
הלל hll: Hillel
הלל hll
הלל hll: Hillel
of Hillel

permit [it]
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתירין mtyryn
נתר ntr: permit, free
permit [it]

with
עם ˁm: with, near
עם ˁm
עם ˁm: with, near
with

[one’s own] servants.
שמש šmš: serve, servant
השמש hšmš
שמש šmš: sun
the sun [still being up?].

Shabbat 1.8.a

Shabbat 1.9.a

Encrypted: Says lord Simeon ben Gamliel: This custom existed in the family of my father, which was that they would present their dresses for the mockery to the oppressed strangers of their own bound people before the war.

Official: Says rabban Simeon ben Gamliel: This custom existed in the family of my father, which was that they would give their dresses which were white to a laundryman who was a non-Jewish stranger at least three days before Sabbath.

Says
אמר ˀmr: say
אמר ˀmr
אמר ˀmr: say
Says

lord
רבן rbn: lord
רבן rbn
רבן rbn: rabban
rabban

Simeon ben Gamliel:
שמעון בן גמליאל šmˁwn bn gmlyˀl: Simeon ben Gamliel
שמעון בן גמליאל šmˁwn bn gmlyˀl
שמעון בן גמליאל šmˁwn bn gmlyˀl: Simeon ben Gamliel
Simeon ben Gamliel:

[This] custom
נוהג nwhg: custom
נוהגין nwhgyn
נוהג nwhg: custom
[This] custom

existed
היה hyh: be, exist
היו hyw
היה hyh: be, exist
existed

in the family
בית byt: house, family
בית byt
בית byt: house, family
in the family

of my father,
אבא ˀbˀ: my father
אבא ˀbˀ
אבא ˀbˀ: my father
of my father,

which was that
ש־ š-: which; היה hyh: be
שהיו šhyw
ש־ š-: which; היה hyh: be
which was that

[they would] present
נתן ntn: show, present
נותנין nwtnyn
נתן ntn: give
[they would] give

their dresses
כלי kly: dress, garment
כלי kly
כלי kly: dress, garment
their dresses

[for] the mockery
לעב lˁb: mock, mockery; ־ן -n: (suffix)
לבן lbn
לבן lbn: white
which were white

to the oppressed
ל־ l-: to; חבץ ḥbṣ: press, oppressed, crowd
לכובס lkwbs
ל־ l-: to; כובס kwbs: laundryman
to a laundryman

strangers
נכר nkr: unknown, stranger
נכרי nkry
נכר nkr: unknown, stranger
who was a [non-Jewish] stranger

[of their own?] bound [??]
שלשל šlšl: chained; שלול šlwl: chained, fettered, manacled
שלשה šlšh
שלש šlš: three
[at least?] three

people [??]
עמים ˁmym: people
ימים ymym
ימים ymym: days
days

before
קדם qdm: before
קדם qdm
קדם qdm: before
before

the war.
ל־ l-: to; צבאות ṣbˀwt: armies, war, warfare
לשבת lšbt
ל־ l-: to; שבת šbt: Sabbath
Sabbath.

Shabbat 1.9.a

There’s always occasional leaks, so they mustn’t be neglected.

Shabbat 1.9.b

Encrypted: And equally voted these of Shammai and those of Hillel here: One can always have be pierced one’s meetings when being among disturbers, and they can be revealed to troops by accident.

Official: And equally voted these of Shammai and those of Hillel here: One may always put down the beam of the structure to press olives, and the press of the wine vat so they press down on Sabbath.

And equally [voted]
שוי šwy: equal, alike
ושוין wšwyn
שוי šwy: equal, alike
And equally [voted]

these [of Shammai]
אלו ˀlw: these
אלו ˀlw
אלו ˀlw: these
these [of Shammai]

and those [of Hillel] [here]:
אלו ˀlw: these
ואלו wˀlw
אלו ˀlw: these
and those [of Hillel] [here]:

[One can always] have be pierced
ש־ š-: make; טען ṭˁn: pierce
שטוענין šṭwˁnyn
ש־ š-: make; טען ṭˁn: put a burden on, load
[One may always] put down

[one’s] meetings
קרי qry: join, meet, happen
קורות qwrwt
קורה qwrh: beam
the beam

[when being] among [??]
בית byt: between, among
בית byt
בית byt: house, structure
of the structure

disturbers [??],
בדד bdd: disturb; בדוד bdwd: disturber
הבד hbd
בדוד bdwd: olive press
to press olives,

and [they can] be revealed
גלא glˀ: uncover, reveal
ועגולי wˁgwly
עגל ˁgl: roll, press
and the press

to troops [by accident].
גוד gwd: troop
הגת hgt
גת gt: wine-press, vat
of the wine vat [so they press down on Sabbath].

Shabbat 1.9.b

Shabbat 1.10.a

Encrypted: One may not neglect penetrations, having things laid bare, or having been found out, except when it can be cleared up while on the same day.

Official: One may not roast meat, onions or eggs, except when they can be roasted fully while on the same day.

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

neglect
שלי šly: be at ease, unconcerned, neglect
צולין ṣwlyn
צלי ṣly: roast, roasted
roast

penetrations,
ברץ brṣ: penetrate, reveal
בשר bšr
בשר bšr: meat
meat,

having [things] laid bare,
פצל pṣl: split, peel, lay bare
בצל bṣl
בצל bṣl: onion
onions

or having been found out,
בצי bṣy: strip, found out, understood
וביצה wbyṣh
ביצה byṣh: egg
or eggs,

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

[it can] be cleared up
ש־ š-: make; צלל ṣll: settle, clear, clarify
שיצולו šyṣwlw
ש־ š-: make; צלי ṣly: roast, roasted
[they can] be roasted [fully]

while
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
מבעוד mbˁwd
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
while

on the [same] day.
יום ywm: day
יום ywm
יום ywm: day
on the [same] day.

Shabbat 1.10.a

Subjects mustn’t see the fraud, except when it can be covered up quickly.

Shabbat 1.10.b

Encrypted: One may not show the deception to one of the servants who is with the poor subjects, and not the wrong acting in a place next to the multitudes, except when it can be covered up on the surface while on the same day.

Official: One may not give a piece of bread into the oven near nightfall, and not a cake onto a spot next to burning coals, except when it can form a crust on its surface while on the same day.

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

show
נתן ntn: show, present
נותנין nwtnyn
נתן ntn: give
give

the deception
פתה pth: foolish, seduce, deceive
פת pt
פת pt: piece of bread
a piece of bread

to one of the servants
ל־ l-: to; ת־ t-: of; ניר nyr: servitude
לתנור ltnwr
ל־ l-: to; תנור tnwr: stove, oven
into the oven

[who is] with
עם ˁm: with, near
עם ˁm
עם ˁm: with, near
near

the poor [subjects],
חשוך ḥšwk: dark, reduced, poor
חשכה ḥškh
חשך ḥšk: darkness, darken
nightfall,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

the wrong [acting]
הרר hrr: trouble, annoy, do wrong, snow job
חררה ḥrrh
חרר ḥrr: cake
a cake

in
על ˁl: upon, over
על ˁl
על ˁl: upon, over
onto

[a place] next to
גב gb: near, next to
גבי gby
גב gb: near, next to
[a spot] next to

the multitudes,
קהל qhl: multitude, crowd, horde
גחלים gḥlym
גחל gḥl: burning coal
burning coals,

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

[it can] be covered up
ש־ š-: make; קרם qrm: fine cloth, cover, overlay
שיקרמו šyqrmw
ש־ š-: make; קרם qrm: form a skin, cover with crust
[it can] form a crust

[on] the surface
פני pny: face
פניה pnyh
פני pny: face
[on its] surface

while
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
מבעוד mbˁwd
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
while

on the [same] day.
יום ywm: day
יום ywm
יום ywm: day
on the [same] day.

Shabbat 1.10.b

Shabbat 1.10.c

Encrypted: Rabbi Eliezer says: When one can put up a cover in the place of it.

Official: Rabbi Eliezer says: When it can form a crust on the lower part of it.

Rabbi
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Eliezer
אליעזר ˀlyˁzr: Eliezer
אליעזר ˀlyˁzr
אליעזר ˀlyˁzr: Eliezer
Eliezer

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

When
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
When

[one can put up] a cover
ש־ š-: make; קרם qrm: fine cloth, cover, overlay
שיקרם šyqrm
ש־ š-: make; קרם qrm: form a skin, cover with crust
[it can] form a crust

in the place
תחת tḥt: instead of, in place of
התחתון htḥtwn
תחת tḥt: below, under
[on] the lower [part]

of it.
של šl: belonging to, of
שלה šlh
של šl: belonging to, of
of it.

Shabbat 1.10.c

Open places can be controlled with guards & crowds.

Shabbat 1.11.a

Encrypted: If one can control an open place towards the servants with obscurity, then one may hold the fake attack with guards even among occasional penetrations. Also with loyal crowds when can hold & support the fake attack enough of them. Lord Yehudah says: With governor support, even all of it can be shown.

Official: When the Sabbath is connected to the Passover festival one may put things into the oven near nightfall, and one may ignite the flame in the pile of wood of the temple to burn there. Also in country areas, when can be ignited the flame enough before Sabbath. Rabbi Yehudah says: With coal fires, even if any of it can be ignited.

[If one can] control
משל mšl: manage, control
משלשלין mšlšlyn
מ־ m-: of; שלשל šlšl: chained, connected
[When the Sabbath] is connected

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
to

an open place
פצח pṣḥ: open place, unwalled place
הפסח hpsḥ
פסח psḥ: Passover festival
the Passover festival

towards the servants
ל־ l-: to; ת־ t-: of; ניר nyr: servitude
בתנור btnwr
ל־ l-: to; תנור tnwr: stove, oven
[one may put things] into the oven

with
עם ˁm: with, near
עם ˁm
עם ˁm: with, near
near

obscurity [?],
חשך ḥšk: darken, obscure
חשכה ḥškh
חשך ḥšk: darkness, darken
nightfall,

then [one may] hold
מ־ m-: of; אחיזה ˀḥyzh: holding, support
ומאחיזין wmˀḥyzyn
מ־ m-: of; אחז ˀḥz: hold, ignite with kindling wood
and [one may] ignite

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

the [fake] attack
אורע ˀwrˁ: meeting, encounter, attack
האור hˀwr
אור ˀwr: light, flame
the flame

with guards
ב־ b-: with; מטרי mṭry: guard, watcher
במדורת bmdwrt
ב־ b-: in; מדורה mdwrh: pile of wood, fire
in the pile of wood

[even] among
בית byt: between, among
בית byt
בית byt: house, structure
of the temple

[occasional?] penetrations [?].
מ־ m-: of; קדד qdd: bore, penetrate
המוקד hmwqd
מ־ m-: of; יקד yqd: kindle, burn, set on fire
to burn [there].

Also with [loyal] crowds [?]
ב־ b-: with; גבל gbl: people, crowd
ובגבולין wbgbwlyn
ב־ b-: in; גבול gbwl: border, territory, country
Also in country [areas??],

when
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when

[can] hold & support
ש־ š-: make; אחיזה ˀḥyzh: holding, support
שיאחז šyˀḥz
ש־ š-: make; אחז ˀḥz: hold, ignite with kindling wood
[can] be ignited

the [fake] attack
אורע ˀwrˁ: meeting, encounter, attack
האור hˀwr
אור ˀwr: light, flame
the flame

enough [of them?].
ב־ b-: in; רב rb: much, many, enough
ברבן brbn
ב־ b-: in; רב rb: much, many, enough
enough [before Sabbath].

Lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
Yehudah

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

With governor [support?],
ב־ b-: with; פחם pḥm: governors
בפחמין bpḥmyn
ב־ b-: in; פחם pḥm: coal
With coal [fires],

[even] all
כל kl: all, any
כל kl
כל kl: all, any
[even if?] any

of it [can be shown?].
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
שהוא šhwˀ
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
of it [can be ignited?].

Shabbat 1.11.a

Kindling the subjects for war

One cannot kindle a war with mere words & mock-ups.

Shabbat 2:1.a

Encrypted: With what can one kindle a war and with what can one not kindle it? One can not kindle it with these: Not with mere words, not with mere appearances, not with mere chatter, and not with a mere perversion of things already in memory, and not with a mere perversion of speech, and not with arranging things which are already known on the surface to the people.

Official: With what may one kindle a fire on Sabbath, and with what may one not kindle it? One may not kindle it with these: Not with cedar wood, not with flax, not with bast silk, not with a thread of bast, and not with a thread of desert grass, and not with moss which grows on the surface of water.

With what
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
במה bmh
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
With what

[can one] kindle [a war]
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
[may one] kindle [a fire on Sabbath],

and with what
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
ובמה wbmh
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
and with what

[can one] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[may one] not

kindle [it]?
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle [it]?

[One can] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

kindle [it with these]:
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle [it with these]:

Not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
Not

with [mere] words,
ב־ b-: with; לכסי lksy: lexis, language, word
בלכש blkš
ב־ b-: with; לכש lkš: cedar-bast
with cedar [wood],

not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with [mere] appearances,
ב־ b-: with; חזון ḥzwn: vision, appearance, spectacle, theatrical
בחסן bḥsn
ב־ b-: with; הוצני hwṣny: soaked flax
with flax,

not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with [mere] chatter,
ב־ b-: with; גלג glg: reveal, chatter, boast
בכלך bklk
ב־ b-: with; כלך klk: bast silk
with bast silk,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with a [mere] perversion
ב־ b-: with; פתל ptl: pervert, twist
בפתילת bptylt
ב־ b-: with; פתיל ptyl: thread, cord, fuse
with a thread

of [things already in] memory,
עוהדן ˁwhdn: memory, commemoration, mention
האידן hˀydn
אידן ˀydn: bast
of bast,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

with a [mere] perversion
ב־ b-: with; פתל ptl: pervert, twist
בפתילת bptylt
ב־ b-: with; פתיל ptyl: thread, cord, fuse
with a thread

of speech,
מדבר mdbr: speech, talk
המדבר hmdbr
מדבר mdbr: desert
of desert grass [??],

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

with arranging [things]
ב־ b-: with; ערך ˁrk: arrange, prepare
בירוקה byrwqh
ב־ b-: with; ירוקה yrwqh: moss
with moss [??]

which [are already known] on
ש־ š-: which; על ˁl: on
שעל šˁl
ש־ š-: which; על ˁl: on
which [grows] on

the surface
פני pny: face
פני pny
פני pny: face
the surface

[to] the people.
עמים ˁmym: people
המים hmym
מים mym: water
of water [???].

Shabbat 2:1.a

Shabbat 2:1.b

Encrypted: And not with mere forgeries, and not with mere smooth-talking, and not with the arrangement of mere impressions, and not with the arrangement of mere confusion and not with mere accusations, and not with mere mockery.

Official: And not with pitch, and not with wax, and not with oil of castor seeds, and not with oil that was burnt, and not with a sheep's tail, and not with fat.

And not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
And not

with [mere] forgeries,
ב־ b-: with; זוף zwp: falsify, forge; ־ת -t: (suffix)
בזפת bzpt
ב־ b-: with; זפת zpt: pitch
with pitch,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

with [mere] smooth-talking,
ב־ b-: with; שעוע šˁwˁ: smooth-talking, hypocrisy
בשעוה bšˁwh
ב־ b-: with; שעוה šˁwh: wax, balm
with wax,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

with the arrangement
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
with oil

of [mere] impressions,
קעקע qˁqˁ: engrave, impression
קיק qyq
קיק qyq: castor-oil seed
of castor seeds,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

with the arrangement
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
with oil

of [mere] confusion [??]
סרב srb: confound, deny, speak falsely against
שרפה šrph
שרפה šrph: burning, fire
[that] was burnt,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

with [mere] accusations,
ב־ b-: with; עלל ˁll: accuse falsely
באליה bˀlyh
ב־ b-: with; אליה ˀlyh: fat tail of sheep
with a sheep's tail [??],

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

with [mere] mockery.
ב־ b-: with; לעב / הלעב lˁb / hlˁb: mock, jest
בחלב bḥlb
ב־ b-: with; חלב ḥlb: fat, grease, milk
with fat.

Shabbat 2:1.b

Shabbat 2:1.c

Encrypted: Nahum the Median says: One can kindle a war with mockery that is complete. But the advisors say: Whether it is one kind that is complete or another kind that is not complete, either way one can not kindle a war with mere mockery.

Official: Nahum the Median says: One may kindle a fire with fat that was boiled. But the advisors say: Whether it is one kind that was boiled or another kind that was not boiled, either way one may not kindle a fire on Sabbath with fat.

Nahum
נחום nḥwm: Nahum
נחום nḥwm
נחום nḥwm: Nahum
Nahum

the Median
מדי mdy: Median
המדי hmdy
מדי mdy: Median
the Median

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

[One can] kindle [a war]
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
[One may] kindle [a fire]

with mockery
ב־ b-: with; לעב / הלעב lˁb / hlˁb: mock, jest
בחלב bḥlb
ב־ b-: with; חלב ḥlb: fat, grease, milk
with fat

[that] is complete.
מ־ m-: of; בשיל bšyl: complete
מבשל mbšl
מ־ m-: of; בשל bšl: ripen, boil
[that] was boiled.

But the advisors
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
וחכמים wḥkmym
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
But the advisors

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[Whether it is] one [kind]
אחד ˀḥd: one, other
אחד ˀḥd
אחד ˀḥd: one, other
[Whether it is] one [kind]

[that] is complete
מ־ m-: of; בשיל bšyl: complete
מבשל mbšl
מ־ m-: of; בשל bšl: ripen, boil
[that] was boiled

or another [kind]
אחד ˀḥd: one, other
ואחד wˀḥd
אחד ˀḥd: one, other
or another [kind]

that [is] not
ש־ š-: which; אין ˀyn: no, not
שאינו šˀynw
ש־ š-: which; אין ˀyn: no, not
that [was] not

complete,
מ־ m-: of; בשיל bšyl: complete
מבשל mbšl
מ־ m-: of; בשל bšl: ripen, boil
boiled,

[either way one can] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[either way one may] not

kindle [a war]
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle [a fire on Sabbath]

with [mere mockery].
בי by: with
בו bw
בי by: with
with [fat].

Shabbat 2:1.c

Shabbat 2:2.a

Encrypted: One can not kindle a war with mere arrangements of confusion in times that are otherwise pleasant & peaceful. Rabbi Ishmael says: One may not kindle a war with mere decoration because of the importance of war.

Official: One may not kindle a fire with oil that was burned on a day joyful of a festival. Rabbi Ishmael says: One may not kindle a fire with pitch because of the importance Sabbath.

[One can] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

kindle [a war]
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle [a fire]

with [mere] arrangements
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
with oil

of confusion
סרב srb: confound, deny, speak falsely against
שרפה šrph
שרפה šrph: burning, fire
[that] was burned

in times
ב־ b-: on; יום ywm: day, time
ביום bywm
ב־ b-: on; יום ywm: day, time
on a day

[that are otherwise] pleasant [& peaceful].
טוב ṭwb: good, pleasant, enjoy oneself
טוב ṭwb
טוב ṭwb: good, pleasant, enjoy oneself
joyful [of a festival].

Rabbi
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Ishmael
ישמעאל yšmˁˀl: Ishmael
ישמעאל yšmˁˀl
ישמעאל yšmˁˀl: Ishmael
Ishmael

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

kindle [a war]
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle [a fire]

with [mere] decoration
ב־ b-: with; עטר ˁṭr: adorn, decorate; ־ן -n: (suffix)
בעטרן bˁṭrn
ב־ b-: with; עטרן ˁṭrn: cedar oil, pitch
with pitch

because of
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
because of

the importance
כבוד kbwd: importance, honor, respect
כבוד kbwd
כבוד kbwd: importance, honor, respect
the importance

of war.
צבאות ṣbˀwt: armies, war, warfare
השבת hšbt
שבת šbt: Sabbath
Sabbath.

Shabbat 2:2.a

Shabbat 2:2.b

Encrypted: But the advisors permit it with all these arrangements: With arranging a swordfight, with arranging an attack, with arranging a fight, with arranging a humiliation, with arranging a military encounter, with violence and with surprise attacks.

Official: And the advisors permit it with all oils: With oil of sesame, with oil of nuts, with oil of radishes, with oil of fish, with oil of gourds, with pitch, and with petroleum.

But the advisors
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
וחכמים wḥkmym
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
And the advisors

permit [it]
מ־ m-: of; נתר ntr: permit
מתירין mtyryn
מ־ m-: of; נתר ntr: permit
permit [it]

with all [these]
ב־ b-: with; כל kl: all
בכל bkl
ב־ b-: with; כל kl: all
with all

arrangements:
זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
השמנים hšmnym
שמן šmn: fat, oil
oils:

With arranging
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
With oil

a swordfight [??],
צמצמא ṣmṣmˀ: sword
שמשמין šmšmyn
שמשם šmšm: sesame
of sesame,

with arranging
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
with oil

an attack,
עגש ˁgš: attack, gore
אגוזים ˀgwzym
אגוז ˀgwz: nut
of nuts,

with arranging
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
with oil

a fight,
זון zwn: outfit, decorate, arm one’s self, fight
צנונות ṣnwnwt
צנון ṣnwn: radish
of radishes,

with arranging
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
with oil

a humiliation,
דקדק dqdq: crush, humiliate, break
דגים dgym
דג dg: fish
of fish,

with arranging
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
with oil

a [military] encounter,
פגע pgˁ: encounter, attack
פקועות pqwˁwt
פקוע pqwˁ: gourd
of gourds,

with violence [??]
ב־ b-: with; טרוניא ṭrwnyˀ: tyrannical, brutal, violent
בעטרן bˁṭrn
ב־ b-: with; עטרן ˁṭrn: cedar oil, pitch
with pitch,

and with surprise [attacks??].
ב־ b-: with; נ־ n-: make; פתע ptˁ: surprise, suddenly
ובנפט wbnpṭ
ב־ b-: with; נפט npṭ: naphtha, petroleum
and with petroleum.

Shabbat 2:2.b

Shabbat 2:2.c

Encrypted: Lord Tarfon says: One simply can not kindle a war, except with arrangements of terror alone.

Official: Rabbi Tarfon says: One may not kindle a fire, except with oil of olives alone.

Lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Tarfon
טרפון ṭrpwn: Tarfon
טרפון ṭrpwn
טרפון ṭrpwn: Tarfon
Tarfon

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

[One simply can] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

kindle [a war],
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle [a fire],

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

with arrangements
ב־ b-: with; זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
בשמן bšmn
ב־ b-: with; שמן šmn: fat, oil
with oil

of terror
זועתא zwˁtˀ: terror
זית zyt
זית zyt: olive
of olives

alone.
ב־ b-: with; לבד lbd: alone
בלבד blbd
ב־ b-: with; לבד lbd: alone
alone.

Shabbat 2:2.c

No deception can kindle a war like a physical attack.

Shabbat 2:3.a

Encrypted: Of all things that one can bring forth from one’s power, one can not kindle a war with them, except with an attack. And of all things that one can bring forth from one’s power, they do not stupefy so completely the slaves, except an attack.

Official: Of all oils that come out from trees, one may not kindle a fire with them, except with flax. And of all oils that come out from trees, they do not make unclean by corpses a tent containing them, except flax.

[Of] all [things]
כל kl: all
כל kl
כל kl: all
[Of] all [oils]

[that one can] bring forth
יצא yṣˀ: come out, bring forth
היוצא hywṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: come out, bring forth
[that] come out

from
מן mn: from
מן mn
מן mn: from
from

[one’s] power,
עצי ˁṣy: oppress, force
העץ hˁṣ
עץ ˁṣ: tree
trees,

[one can] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[one may] not

kindle [a war]
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle [a fire]

with them,
בי by: with
בו bw
בי by: with
with them,

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

[with] an attack.
פשט pšṭ: attack, invade, make a raid; ־ן -n: (suffix)
פשתן pštn
פשתן pštn: flax, linen
[with] flax.

And [of] all [things]
כל kl: all
וכל wkl
כל kl: all
And [of] all [oils]

[that one can] bring forth
יצא yṣˀ: come out, bring forth
היוצא hywṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: come out, bring forth
[that] come out

from
מן mn: from
מן mn
מן mn: from
from

[one’s] power,
עצי ˁṣy: oppress, force
העץ hˁṣ
עץ ˁṣ: tree
trees,

[they do] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אינו ˀynw
אין ˀyn: no, not
[they do] not

stupefy
מ־ m-: of; תמה tmh: amaze, astonish, stun, stupor
מטמא mṭmˀ
מ־ m-: of; טמא ṭmˀ: unclean
make unclean

[so] completely
תם tm: completeness, perfection
טמאת ṭmˀt
טמא ṭmˀ: ghost, unclean by corpse
[by] corpses [??]

the slaves,
אולה ˀwlh: slave; חול ḥwl: common
אהלים ˀhlym
אהל ˀhl: tent, shelter, cover
a tent [containing them?],

except
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
אלא ˀlˀ
אלא ˀlˀ: if not, except, only
except

an attack.
פשט pšṭ: attack, invade, make a raid; ־ן -n: (suffix)
פשתן pštn
פשתן pštn: flax, linen
flax.

Shabbat 2:3.a

Shabbat 2:3.b

Encrypted: Even a perversion of deceit which is accepted, but it may not confuse the subjects enough. Lord Eliezer says: It is unfit, one can not kindle a war with it. Lord Akiva says: If it is a really clean one, then one can kindle a war with it.

Official: A thread of garment which is rolled up into a wick, but not yet struck lit up. Rabbi Eliezer says: It is unclean, one may not kindle a fire with it. Rabbi Akiva says: It is clean, and one may kindle a fire with it.

[Even] a perversion
פתל ptl: pervert, twist
פתילת ptylt
פתיל ptyl: thread, cord, fuse
A thread

of deceit
בגד bgd: betrayal, treachery, deceit
הבגד hbgd
בגד bgd: web, garment, dress
of garment

which is accepted [?],
ש־ š-: which; קבל qbl: receive, accept
שקפלה šqplh
ש־ š-: which; קפל qpl: fold, roll up
which is rolled up [into a wick?],

but [it may] not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
but not

confuse [the subjects enough].
בהבה bhbh: confused, dumbfound, perplex, baffle
הבהבה hbhbh
בהבה bhbh: strike
[yet] struck [lit up?].

Lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Eliezer
אליעזר ˀlyˁzr: Eliezer
אליעזר ˀlyˁzr
אליעזר ˀlyˁzr: Eliezer
Eliezer

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

It is unfit,
טמא ṭmˀ: unclean
טמאה ṭmˀh
טמא ṭmˀ: unclean
It is unclean,

[one can] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[one may] not

kindle [a war]
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle [a fire]

with it.
בה bh: with it
בה bh
בה bh: with it
with it.

Lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Akiva
עקיבא ˁqybˀ: Akiva
עקיבא ˁqybˀ
עקיבא ˁqybˀ: Akiva
Akiva

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

[If] it is a [really] clean [one],
טהר ṭhr: cleared, cleanse, amend
טהורה ṭhwrh
טהר ṭhr: clean, pure
It is clean,

then [one can] kindle [a war]
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
ומדליקין wmdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
and [one may] kindle [a fire]

with it.
בה bh: with it
בה bh
בה bh: with it
with it.

Shabbat 2:3.b

Leaks out of idiocy cannot be filled with simple distractions.

Shabbat 2:4.a

Encrypted: And may not fix up a man the clumsiness of being found out, and fill it with another arrangement and place it on the mouth of the servants, the reason being to distract and to obscure of it its clumsiness. But lord Yehudah permits it.

Official: And may not hollow out a man the receptacle shell of an egg, and fill it with oil, and place it on the mouth of a lamp, the reason being to make it drip into the lamp, to extend of it its glowing time. But rabbi Yehudah permits it.

[And may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[And may] not

fix up [??]
קבע qbˁ: deceive, fix, establish
יקב yqb
יקב yqb: hollow out
hollow out

a man
אדם ˀdm: man
אדם ˀdm
אדם ˀdm: man
a man

the clumsiness [??]
ש־ š-: make; פפרא pprˀ: clumsy, negligent, neglectful; פפרותא pprwtˀ: awkwardness, clumsiness, sloppiness
שפופרת špwprt
שפופרת špwprt: tube, pipe, receptacle
the receptacle [shell?]

of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
of

being found out,
בצי bṣy: strip, found out, understood
ביצה byṣh
ביצה byṣh: egg
an egg [??],

and fill [it]
מלא mlˀ: full, fill
וימלאנה wymlˀnh
מלא mlˀ: full, fill
and fill [it]

[with another] arrangement
זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
שמן šmn
שמן šmn: fat, oil
[with] oil,

and place [it]
נתן ntn: give, place, put
ויתננה wytnnh
נתן ntn: give, place, put
and place [it]

on
על ˁl: on
על ˁl
על ˁl: on
on

the mouth
פה ph: mouth
פי py
פה ph: mouth
the mouth

of the servants,
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
of a lamp,

the reason
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
the reason

being
ש־ š-: which; היה hyh: be
שתהא šthˀ
ש־ š-: which; היה hyh: be
being

to distract
מ־ m-: of; נתף ntp: entice, attract, distracted
מנטפת mnṭpt
מ־ m-: of; נטף nṭp: drip, drop
[to make it] drip [into the lamp??],

[and] to obscure
אפל ˀpl: darken, obscure
אפלו ˀplw
אפל ˀpl: slow, late
to extend

of it
הוא hwˀ: he, it
היא hyˀ
הוא hwˀ: he, it
of it

its
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
its

clumsiness [??].
חרוסא ḥrwsˀ: awkward, clumsy
חרס ḥrs
חרס ḥrs: sun, glow
glowing [time].

But lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
ורבי wrby
רבי rby: rabbi
But rabbi

Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
Yehudah

permits [it].
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתיר mtyr
נתר ntr: permit, free
permits [it].

Shabbat 2:4.a

Shabbat 2:4.b

Encrypted: But if was an associate the leaker from the beginning, then it is permitted, because then it is a thing unique.

Official: But if the egg was attached when fashioning the lamp from the beginning, then it is permitted, because then it is a vessel single.

But
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
But

if
אם ˀm: if, when
אם ˀm
אם ˀm: if, when
if

[was] an associate
חבר ḥbr: company, partner, associate
חברה ḥbrh
חבר ḥbr: join, attach
[the egg??] was attached

the leaker [?]
צרי ṣry: split, penetrate, burst
היוצר hywṣr
יצר yṣr: fashion, create, establish
[when] fashioning [the lamp??]

from the beginning,
מ־ m-: from; תחל tḥl: begin
מתחלה mtḥlh
מ־ m-: from; תחל tḥl: begin
from the beginning,

[then it] is permitted,
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתר mtr
נתר ntr: permit, free
[then it] is permitted,

because [then]
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
because [then]

it is
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
שהוא šhwˀ
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
it is

a thing
כלי kly: thing
כלי kly
כלי kly: object, vessel
a vessel

unique.
אחד ˀḥd: one, single, unique
אחד ˀḥd
אחד ˀḥd: one, single, unique
single.

Shabbat 2:4.b

One may not punish a leaker by throwing him to the masses.

Shabbat 2:4.c

Encrypted: Also may not fill a man a leak with an arrangement, and place it at the side of the servants, and put the disturber of the perversion project in their middle for the sake of him drawing and absorbing their anger. But lord Yehudah permits it.

Official: Also may not fill a man a dish with oil, and place it at the side of a lamp, and put the head of the wick in its middle for the sake of it drawing and absorbing the oil. But rabbi Yehudah permits it.

[Also may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[Also may] not

fill
מלא mlˀ: full, fill
ימלא ymlˀ
מלא mlˀ: full, fill
fill

a man
אדם ˀdm: man
אדם ˀdm
אדם ˀdm: man
a man

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

a leak
קרר qrr: well forth, give forth
הקערה hqˁrh
קערה qˁrh: dish, platter
a dish

[with] an arrangement,
זמן zmn: plot, prepare, arrange
שמן šmn
שמן šmn: fat, oil
[with] oil,

and place [it]
נתן ntn: give, place, put
ויתננה wytnnh
נתן ntn: give, place, put
and place [it]

at the side
ב־ b-: on; צד ṣd: side, border
בצד bṣd
ב־ b-: on; צד ṣd: side, border
at the side

of the servants,
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
of a lamp,

and put
נתן ntn: give, place, put
ויתן wytn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
and put

the disturber
רעש rˁš: shake, disturb
ראש rˀš
ראש rˀš: head
the head

of the perversion [project?]
פתל ptl: pervert, twist
הפתילה hptylh
פתיל ptyl: thread, cord, fuse
of the wick

in [their] middle
ב־ b-: in; תוך twk: middle
בתוכה btwkh
ב־ b-: in; תוך twk: middle
in [its] middle

for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
for the sake of

[him] drawing
שתי šty: drink, absorb water
שתהא šthˀ
שתי šty: drink, absorb water
[it] drawing

[and] absorbing [their anger].
שאב šˀb: draw water, absorb; ־ת -t: (suffix)
שואבת šwˀbt
שאב šˀb: draw water, absorb; ־ת -t: (suffix)
[and] absorbing [the oil].

But lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
ורבי wrby
רבי rby: rabbi
But rabbi

Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
Yehudah

permits [it].
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתיר mtyr
נתר ntr: permit, free
permits [it].

Shabbat 2:4.c

Safety & killings in war

It’s okay to kill commoners if you’re afraid, or to train the army.

Shabbat 2:5.a

Encrypted: When one extinguishes servants because one was startled because of the crowds, or because of being seized, or because of commoners that would do harm, or if it was for the sake of the army to harden them up, then one is exempt.

Official: When one extinguishes a lamp because one was startled because of gentiles, or because of robbers, or because of spirits that are evil, or if it was for the sake of a sick person to allow him to sleep, then one is exempt.

[When one] extinguishes
מ־ m-: of; כבה kbh: quench, extinguish
המכבה hmkbh
מ־ m-: of; כבה kbh: quench, extinguish
[When one] extinguishes

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

servants [?!?]
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
a lamp

because
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
because

one
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
שהוא šhwˀ
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
one

was startled
מ־ m-: of; נתר ntr: jump, startled, terrify
מתירא mtyrˀ
מ־ m-: of; נתר ntr: jump, startled, terrify
was startled

because of
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
because of

the crowds,
גוי gwy: crowd, people
גוים gwym
גוי gwy: nation, gentile
gentiles,

or because of
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
or because of

being seized,
לסטי lsṭy: rob, seize, seized
לסטים lsṭym
לסט lsṭ: robber
robbers,

or because of
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
or because of

commoners
רווח rwwḥ: common, popular
רוח rwḥ
רוח rwḥ: spirit
spirits

that [would] do harm,
רעה rˁh: wrong, harm
רעה rˁh
רעה rˁh: evil
that are evil,

or if
אם ˀm: if, when
ואם wˀm
אם ˀm: if, when
or if

[it was] for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
[it was] for the sake of

the army
חיל ḥyl: force, army, military
החולה hḥwlh
חלה ḥlh: faint, sick
a sick person

[to] harden them up [?!?],
עשן ˁšn: harden, make firm, grow strong, prepare oneself
שיישן šyyšn
ש־ š-: make; ישן yšn: sleep
[to allow] him to sleep,

[then one] is exempt.
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
פטור pṭwr
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
[then one] is exempt.

Shabbat 2:5.a

One mustn’t protect servants or idiots or talkers.

Shabbat 2:5.b

Encrypted: But as for protecting servants, as for protecting idiots, as for protecting idiot talkers, one is guilty. But lord Yose exempts this, in everything except of protecting idiot talkers, because it creates trouble.

Official: But as for sparing the lamp, as for sparing the oil, as for sparing the fuse, one is guilty. But rabbi Yose exempts this, in everything except of sparing the fuse, because it creates coal when it’s extinguished.

[But] as for protecting
כ־ k-: as; חוס ḥws: protect, spare
כחס kḥs
כ־ k-: as; חוס ḥws: protect, spare
[But] as for sparing

 
על ˁl: to, over
על ˁl
על ˁl: to, over
 

servants [?!?],
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
the lamp,

as for protecting
כ־ k-: as; חוס ḥws: protect, spare
כחס kḥs
כ־ k-: as; חוס ḥws: protect, spare
as for sparing

 
על ˁl: to, over
על ˁl
על ˁl: to, over
 

idiots,
שעממן šˁmmn: troublesome person; שעמום šˁmwm: idiot
השמן hšmn
שמן šmn: fat, oil
the oil,

as for protecting
כ־ k-: as; חוס ḥws: protect, spare
כחס kḥs
כ־ k-: as; חוס ḥws: protect, spare
as for sparing

 
על ˁl: to, over
על ˁl
על ˁl: to, over
 

idiot talkers,
בדוילא bdwylˀ: idle talk; בדולא bdwlˀ: idiot, moron, one who talks a lot
הפתילה hptylh
פתיל ptyl: thread, cord, fuse
the fuse,

[one] is guilty.
חיב ḥyb: guilty, obliged
חיב ḥyb
חיב ḥyb: guilty, obliged
[one] is guilty.

But lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
ורבי wrby
רבי rby: rabbi
But rabbi

Yose
יוסי ywsy: Yose
יוסי ywsy
יוסי ywsy: Yose
Yose

exempts [this],
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
פוטר pwṭr
פטר pṭr: exempt, free
exempts [this],

in everything
ב־ b-: in; כל kl: all, whole
בכלן bkln
ב־ b-: in; כל kl: all, whole
in everything

except
חוץ ḥwṣ: outside, except
חוץ ḥwṣ
חוץ ḥwṣ: outside, except
except

of
מן mn: of, from
מן mn
מן mn: of, from
of

[protecting] idiot talkers,
בדוילא bdwylˀ: idle talk; בדולא bdwlˀ: idiot, moron, one who talks a lot
הפתילה hptylh
פתיל ptyl: thread, cord, fuse
[sparing] the fuse,

because
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
because

it
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
שהוא šhwˀ
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
it

creates
עשה ˁšh: do, make, create
עושה ˁwšh
עשה ˁšh: do, make, create
creates

trouble.
פעם pˁm: agitated, trouble
פחם pḥm
פחם pḥm: coal
coal [when it’s extinguished??].

Shabbat 2:5.b

Aristocrats can be killed in hoaxed wars if they aren’t careful.

Shabbat 2:6.a

Encrypted: For three transgressions can rulers die during hoaxes: It is for not being cautious when wandering about, and being slain after kindling the anger of the servants.

Official: For three transgressions can women die during childbirth: It is for not being cautious in menstruation, and with making cakes, and in kindling the lamp on Sabbath.

For
על ˁl: on, for
על ˁl
על ˁl: on, for
For

three
שלש šlš: three
שלש šlš
שלש šlš: three
three

transgressions
עבר ˁbr: violate, transgress
עברות ˁbrwt
עבר ˁbr: violate, transgress
transgressions

[can] rulers
נשאים nšˀym: princes, rulers
נשים nšym
נשים nšym: women
[can] women

die
מות mwt: die, death
מתות mtwt
מות mwt: die, death
die

during
בשעת bšˁt: during
בשעת bšˁt
בשעת bšˁt: during
during

hoaxes:
עלדיתא ˁldytˀ: guile, cunning, deception, hoax
לדתן ldtn
ילדתא yldtˀ: woman in childbirth
childbirth:

[It is] for
על ˁl: on, for
על ˁl
על ˁl: on, for
[It is] for

not
ש־ š-: which; אין ˀyn: no, not
שאינן šˀynn
ש־ š-: which; אין ˀyn: no, not
not

being cautious
זהיר zhyr: cautious, attentive
זהירות zhyrwt
זהיר zhyr: cautious, attentive
being cautious

when wandering about,
ב־ b-: in; נוד nwd: wander about
בנדה bndh
ב־ b-: in; נדה ndh: menstruation
in menstruation,

and being slain
ב־ b-: in; חלל ḥll: beheaded, slain
ובחלה wbḥlh
ב־ b-: with; חלה ḥlh: cake, loaf
and with [making] cakes [???],

[after] kindling
ב־ b-: in; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
ובהדלקת wbhdlqt
ב־ b-: in; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
and in kindling

[the anger] of the servants.
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
the lamp [on Sabbath].

Shabbat 2:6.a

Shabbat 2:7.a

Encrypted: There are three things that needs a man to say ask oneself in the middle among the multitudes before a war about the people who are poor subjects: Have you stirred them up? Have you confounded them? If so, one can kindle the servants for war.

Official: There are three things that needs a man to say in the middle of his house on the evening to the Sabbath to the relatives when it is getting dark: Have you tithed the tithes? Have you pledged the pledges? If so, one can kindle the lamp for Sabbath.

[There are] three
שלש šlš: three
שלשה šlšh
שלש šlš: three
[There are] three

things
דבר dbr: thing
דברים dbrym
דבר dbr: thing
things

[that] needs
צרך ṣrk: need, require
צריך ṣryk
צרך ṣrk: need, require
[that] needs

a man
אדם ˀdm: man
אדם ˀdm
אדם ˀdm: man
a man

to say [ask oneself]
ל־ l-: to; אמר ˀmr: say
לומר lwmr
ל־ l-: to; אמר ˀmr: say
to say

in the middle
ב־ b-: in; תוך twk: middle
בתוך btwk
ב־ b-: in; תוך twk: middle
in the middle

among
בית byt: between, among
ביתו bytw
בית byt: house
of his house

the multitudes
ערב ˁrb: mixed multitude
ערב ˁrb
ערב ˁrb: evening
[on] the evening

[before] a war
צבאות ṣbˀwt: armies, war, warfare
שבת šbt
שבת šbt: Sabbath
[to] the Sabbath

[about] the people
עם ˁm: crowd, people
עם ˁm
עם ˁm: kinsman, relative
[to] the relatives

who are poor [subjects]:
חשוך ḥšwk: dark, reduced, poor
חשכה ḥškh
חשך ḥšk: darkness, darken
[when it is getting] dark:

Have you stirred them up?
סער sˁr: rage, stir up, excited, troubled; ־ם -m: them
עשרתם ˁšrtm
עשר ˁšr: tithe; ־ם -m: them
Have you tithed [the tithes]?

Have you confounded them?
ערבב ˁrbb: mix up, confound, disturb
ערבתם ˁrbtm
ערב ˁrb: vouch, pledge; ־ם -m: them
Have you pledged [the pledges]?

[If so, one can] kindle
דלק dlq: kindle, burn
הדליקו hdlyqw
דלק dlq: kindle, burn
[If so, one can] kindle

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

the servants [for war].
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
the lamp [for Sabbath].

Shabbat 2:7.a

If there’s doubt as to safety, one mustn’t stir the masses in one’s real identity.

Shabbat 2:7.b

Encrypted: If there is doubt whether they can be controlled, and there is doubt whether they can not be controlled, then one may not stir them up in one’s real identity, and one may not immerse oneself in the multitudes, and one may not personally kindle the servants for war.

Official: If there is doubt whether it is dark and there is doubt whether it is not dark, then one may not tithe certainly not tithed fruit, and one may not immerse the ritual vessels in water, and one may not kindle the lamp for Sabbath.

[If there is] doubt
ספק spq: doubt
ספק spq
ספק spq: doubt
[If there is] doubt

[whether they can] be controlled,
חסך ḥsk: save, protect, restrain, control
חשכה ḥškh
חשך ḥšk: darkness, darken
[whether it] is dark

[and there is] doubt
ספק spq: doubt
ספק spq
ספק spq: doubt
[and there is] doubt

[whether they can] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[whether it] is not

be controlled,
חסך ḥsk: save, protect, restrain, control
חשכה ḥškh
חשך ḥšk: darkness, darken
dark,

[then one may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[then one may] not

stir [them] up
מ־ m-: of; סער sˁr: rage, stir up, excited, troubled
מעשרין mˁšryn
מ־ m-: of; עשר ˁšr: tithe
tithe

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

[in one’s] real [identity,
ודאי wdˀy: certain, real, surely
הודאי hwdˀy
ודאי wdˀy: certain, real, surely
certainly [not tithed fruit],

and [one may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
and [one may] not

immerse [oneself]
מ־ m-: of; טבילה ṭbylh: dipping, immersion
מטבילין mṭbylyn
מ־ m-: of; טבילה ṭbylh: dipping, immersion
immerse

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

[in] the multitudes,
קהל qhl: multitude, crowd, horde
הכלים hklym
כלי kly: object, vessel
the [ritual] vessels [in water],

and [one may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
and [one may] not

[personally] kindle
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
מדליקין mdlyqyn
מ־ m-: of; דלק dlq: kindle, burn
kindle

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

the servants [for war].
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנרות hnrwt
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
the lamp [for Sabbath].

Shabbat 2:7.b

Shabbat 2:7.c

Encrypted: But one may stir them up in disguise, and one may confound them in concealment as one of the crowds.

Official: But one may tithe fruits suspected to be untithed, and one may pledge, and store away the hot water for Sabbath.

But
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
But

[one may] stir [them] up
סער sˁr: rage, stir up, excited, troubled
מעשרין mˁšryn
מ־ m-: of; עשר ˁšr: tithe
[one may] tithe

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

[in] disguise,
דמי dmy: similar, disguise
הדמאי hdmˀy
דמאי dmˀy: suspicion, fruits suspected untithed
[fruits] suspected [to be untithed],

and [one may] confound [them]
ערבב ˁrbb: mix up, confound, disturb
ומערבין wmˁrbyn
ערב ˁrb: vouch, pledge
and [one may] pledge,

[in] concealment
טמן ṭmn: conceal, hide one’s self
וטומנין wṭwmnyn
טמן ṭmn: store away, preserve
and store away

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

[as one of] the crowds.
המון hmwn: multitude, crowd, people, population
החמין hḥmyn
חם ḥm: warm, hot, hot water; ־ין -yn: (plural)
the hot water [for Sabbath].

Shabbat 2:7.c

Harshness can be covered-up with excuses, but arrogant oppression needs a mask.

Shabbat 3:1.a

Encrypted: If a lord has problems only with his harshness or with his taxes, then one may place above him a pretense like a war. But if he has problems with arrogance or with open oppression, then one may not place anything on top of that until it is cleaned up, or until one places a complete mask on him.

Official: If a portable stove was made to burn with straw or with rakings, then one may place above it a cooking pot with food. But if it was lit with turf or with wood, then one may not place anything on top until it is sweeped, or until one places ashes on the fire to extinguish it.

[If] a lord
קיר qyr: lord, leader
כירה kyrh
כירה kyrh: portable stove
[If] a portable stove

has problems
ש־ š-: make; עסק ˁsq: issue, problem, difficult, troublesome
שהסיקוה šhsyqwh
ש־ š-: make; אסקו ˀsqw: burning
was made to burn

[only] with [his] harshness
ב־ b-: with; קשי qšy: hard, harsh, severe
בקש bqš
ב־ b-: with; קש : straw, stubble
with straw

or with [his] taxes,
ב־ b-: with; גבי gby: collect, tax, confiscate, fine
ובגבבא wbgbbˀ
ב־ b-: with; גבבה gbbh: straw, stubble, rakings, rubbish
or with rakings,

[then one may] place
נתן ntn: give, place, put
נותנים nwtnym
נתן ntn: give, place, put
[then one may] place

above him
על ˁl: upon, above
עליה ˁlyh
על ˁl: upon, above
above it

a pretense [like a war].
ת־ t-: of; בשאילו bšˀylw: feignedly, in pretense; ב־ b-: in; שאיל šˀyl: deceptions
תבשיל tbšyl
ת־ t-: of; בשל bšl: cook, boil
a cooking [pot with food?].

[But if he has problems] with arrogance
ב־ b-: with; גבהות gbhwt: pride, haughtiness
בגפת bgpt
ב־ b-: with; גפת gpt: peat, turf
[But if it was lit] with turf

or with [open] oppression,
ב־ b-: with; עצי ˁṣy: oppression, force, rob, defraud
ובעצים wbˁṣym
ב־ b-: with; עץ ˁṣ: tree, wood
or with wood,

[then one may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[then one may] not

place [anything on top of that]
נתן ntn: give, place, put
יתן ytn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
place [anything on top]

until
עד ˁd: while, until
עד ˁd
עד ˁd: while, until
until

[it] is cleaned up,
ש־ š-: make; גרף grp: rake, sweep, clean
שיגרף šygrp
ש־ š-: make; גרף grp: rake, sweep, clean
[it] is sweeped,

or
או ˀw: or
או ˀw
או ˀw: or
or

until
עד ˁd: while, until
עד ˁd
עד ˁd: while, until
until

[one] places
ש־ š-: make; נתן ntn: give, place, put
שיתן šytn
ש־ š-: make; נתן ntn: give, place, put
[one] places

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

a [complete] mask [on him].
אפר ˀpr: bandage, mask
האפר hˀpr
אפר ˀpr: ashes
ashes [on the fire to extinguish it?].

Shabbat 3:1.a

Shabbat 3:1.b

Encrypted: The school of Shammai say: One can still confuse / the crowds, but not with simple pretense. The school of Hillel say: One can still confuse / the crowds, even with pretense.

Official: The school of Shammai say: One may place hot water on it, but one may not cook food. The school of Hillel say: One may place hot water on it, and also cook on it.

The school
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
The school

of Shammai
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
שמאי šmˀy
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
of Shammai

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One can still] confuse / the crowds [?],
המון hmwn: multitude, crowd, confusion
חמין ḥmyn
חם ḥm: warm, hot, hot water; ־ין -yn: (plural)
[One may place] hot water [on it],

but
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
but

not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[one may] not

[with simple?] pretense.
ת־ t-: of; בשאילו bšˀylw: feignedly, in pretense; ב־ b-: in; שאיל šˀyl: deceptions
תבשיל tbšyl
ת־ t-: of; בשל bšl: cook, boil
cook [food?].

The school
בית byt: house, school
ובית wbyt
בית byt: house, school
The school

of Hillel
הלל hll: Hillel
הלל hll
הלל hll: Hillel
of Hillel

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One can still] confuse / the crowds [?],
המון hmwn: multitude, crowd, confusion
חמין ḥmyn
חם ḥm: warm, hot, hot water; ־ין -yn: (plural)
[One may place] hot water [on it],

[even with?] pretense.
ת־ t-: of; בשאילו bšˀylw: feignedly, in pretense; ב־ b-: in; שאיל šˀyl: deceptions
ותבשיל wtbšyl
ת־ t-: of; בשל bšl: cook, boil
[and also] cook [on it].

Shabbat 3:1.b

Shabbat 3:1.c

Encrypted: The school of Shammai say: One can remove an unpopular ruler, but one may not restore him. The school of Hillel say: One may even restore him.

Official: The school of Shammai say: One may remove a pot on Sabbath, but one may not return it. The school of Hillel say: One may even return it.

The school
בית byt: house, school
בית byt
בית byt: house, school
The school

of Shammai
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
שמאי šmˀy
שמאי šmˀy: Shammai
of Shammai

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One can] remove [an unpopular ruler],
נטל nṭl: move, remove
נוטלין nwṭlyn
נטל nṭl: move, remove
[One may] remove [a pot on Sabbath?],

but
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
but

[one may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[one may] not

restore [him].
חזר ḥzr: restore, return
מחזירין mḥzyryn
חזר ḥzr: restore, return
return [it].

The school
בית byt: house, school
ובית wbyt
בית byt: house, school
The school

of Hillel
הלל hll: Hillel
הלל hll
הלל hll: Hillel
of Hillel

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One may] even
אף ˀp: also, even
אף ˀp
אף ˀp: also, even
[One may] even

restore [him].
חזר ḥzr: restore, return
מחזירין mḥzyryn
חזר ḥzr: restore, return
return [it].

Shabbat 3:1.c

If the subjects are already troublesome, don’t place anyone near them.

Shabbat 3:2.a

Encrypted: If the servants are already troublesome with imposed harshness or with imposed taxes, one may not place anyone among the oppressed, or at any place near them.

Official: If an oven was made to burn with straw or with rakings, one may not place anything in the middle or on the top.

[If] the servants
ת־ t-: of; ניר nyr: servitude
תנור tnwr
תנור tnwr: stove, oven
[If] an oven

are [already] troublesome
ש־ š-: make; עסק ˁsq: issue, problem, difficult, troublesome
שהסיקוהו šhsyqwhw
ש־ š-: make; אסקו ˀsqw: burning
was made to burn

with [imposed] harshness
ב־ b-: with; קשי qšy: hard, harsh, severe
בקש bqš
ב־ b-: with; קש : straw, stubble
with straw

or with [imposed] taxes,
ב־ b-: with; גבי gby: collect, tax, confiscate, fine
ובגבבא wbgbbˀ
ב־ b-: with; גבבה gbbh: straw, stubble, rakings, rubbish
or with rakings,

[one may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[one may] not

place [anyone]
נתן ntn: give, place, put
יתן ytn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
place [anything]

among
בין byn: between, among
בין byn
בין byn: between, among
in

the oppressed,
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
מתוכו mtwkw
מ־ m-: from; תוך twk: middle, inside
the middle

[or]
בין byn: between, among
בין byn
בין byn: between, among
[or]

at
מ־ m-: from, of; על ˁl: upon, above
מעל mˁl
מ־ m-: from, of; על ˁl: upon, above
on

[any place] near [them].
גב gb: near, next to
גביו gbyw
גב gb: back, top
the top.

Shabbat 3:2.a

Shabbat 3:2.b

Encrypted: If the oppressed are already troublesome with imposed harshness or with imposed taxes, in all aspects this is like a lord having problems with arrogance or with open oppression, in all aspects it is very visible.

Official: If a large lamp was made to burn with straw or with rakings, in all aspects this is like a portable stove lit with turf or with wood, in all aspects it is like an oven.

[If] the oppressed
קפח qpḥ: oppress, overwhelm, rob; כפה kph: subdue, force, compel
כפח kpḥ
קפח / כפח qpḥ / kpḥ: very tall
[If] a large [lamp???]

are [already] troublesome
ש־ š-: make; עסק ˁsq: issue, problem, difficult, troublesome
שהסיקוהו šhsyqwhw
ש־ š-: make; אסקו ˀsqw: burning
was made to burn

with [imposed] harshness
ב־ b-: with; קשי qšy: hard, harsh, severe
בקש bqš
ב־ b-: with; קש : straw, stubble
with straw

or with [imposed] taxes,
ב־ b-: with; גבי gby: collect, tax, confiscate, fine
ובגבבא wbgbbˀ
ב־ b-: with; גבבה gbbh: straw, stubble, rakings, rubbish
or with rakings,

[in all] aspects
הרי hry: aspect, case
הרי hry
הרי hry: aspect, case
[in all] aspects

this [is]
זה zh: this
זה zh
זה zh: this
this [is]

like a lord
כ־ k-: as, like; קיר qyr: lord, leader
ככירים kkyrym
כ־ k-: as, like; כירה kyrh: portable stove
like a portable stove

[having problems] with arrogance
ב־ b-: with; גבהות gbhwt: pride, haughtiness
בגפת bgpt
ב־ b-: with; גפת gpt: peat, turf
[lit] with turf

or with [open] oppression,
ב־ b-: with; עצי ˁṣy: oppression, force, rob, defraud
ובעצים wbˁṣym
ב־ b-: with; עץ ˁṣ: tree, wood
or with wood,

[in all] aspects
הרי hry: aspect, case
הרי hry
הרי hry: aspect, case
[in all] aspects

it [is]
הוא hwˀ: he, it
הוא hwˀ
הוא hwˀ: he, it
it [is]

[very] visible [?].
כ־ k-: as, like; ת־ t-: of; נראה nrˀh: visible
כתנור ktnwr
כ־ k-: as, like; תנור tnwr: stove, oven
like an oven.

Shabbat 3:2.b

One may not place exposed people near the subjects.

Shabbat 3:3.a

Encrypted: One may not place someone who was found out at their side in full sight for the sake of revealing him. And one may not break open the arrangements. But lord Yose permits it.

Official: One may not place an egg at the side of a vessel with hot water for the sake of rolling it to cook each side. And one may not break it into a hot kerchief to cook it. But rabbi Yose permits it.

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

place
נתן ntn: give, place, put
נותנין nwtnyn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
place

[someone who] was found out
בצי bṣy: strip, found out, understood
ביצה byṣh
ביצה byṣh: egg
an egg

at [their] side
ב־ b-: on; צד ṣd: side, border
בצד bṣd
ב־ b-: on; צד ṣd: side, border
at the side

[in full] sight
מחמי mḥmy: sight, appearance, vision
המחם hmḥm
מחם mḥm: bronze water vessel
of a vessel [with hot water]

for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
for the sake of

revealing [him].
ש־ š-: make; ת־ t-: of; גלגל glgl: revealed
שתתגלגל šttglgl
ש־ š-: make; ת־ t-: of; גלגל glgl: roll, turn
rolling it [to cook each side].

And [one may] not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
And [one may] not

break open
פקע pqˁ: split, break, burst, crack
יפקיענה ypqyˁnh
פקע pqˁ: split, break, burst, crack
break [it]

the arrangements.
ב־ b-: in; סדר sdr: arrange, arrangement
בסודרין bswdryn
ב־ b-: in; סודר swdr: scarf, kerchief
into a [hot?] kerchief [to cook it].

But lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
ורבי wrby
רבי rby: rabbi
But rabbi

Yose
יוסי ywsy: Yose
יוסי ywsy
יוסי ywsy: Yose
Yose

permits [it].
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתיר mtyr
נתר ntr: permit, free
permits [it].

Shabbat 3:3.a

Shabbat 3:3.b

Encrypted: But one may also not conceal things with a pierced leak or with someone found out among the leaders, for the sake of protecting them.

Official: And one may also not store the egg in hot sand or in hot dust of the road for the sake of roasting it.

But [one may also] not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
And [one may also] not

conceal [things]
טמן ṭmn: conceal, hide one’s self
יטמיננה yṭmynnh
טמן ṭmn: store away, preserve
store [the egg?]

with a pierced [leak]
ב־ b-: with; חלל ḥll: split, pierce, bore, hollow
בחל bḥl
ב־ b-: in; חל ḥl: sand, dust
in [hot?] sand

or with [someone] found out
ב־ b-: with; בקא bqˀ: search, investigate, examine, find out
ובאבק wbˀbq
ב־ b-: in; אבק ˀbq: dust, powder
or in [hot?] dust

[among] the leaders,
דרך drk: lead
דרכים drkym
דרך drk: road, path, way
of the road

for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
for the sake of

protecting [them?].
ש־ š-: make; ת־ t-: of; אצל ˀṣl: protect, spare, lay aside
שתצלה štṣlh
ש־ š-: make; ת־ t-: of; צלה ṣlh: roast
roasting [it].

Shabbat 3:3.b

There were incidents, so don’t overdo it like you would during peace.

Shabbat 3:4.a

Encrypted: There was an incident which did the common men of Tiberias: They uncovered despised people of the secret agents in the middle of the people of the crowds and roughed them up.

Official: There was a deed which did the men of Tiberias: They brought a pipe for cold water through the middle of a river of a spring of hot water so they’d have hot water on Sabbath.

[There was] an incident
מעשה mˁšh: event, incident
מעשה mˁšh
מעשה mˁšh: deed, act
[There was] a deed

which did
ש־ š-: which; עשה ˁšh: do, act, make
שעשו šˁšw
ש־ š-: which; עשה ˁšh: do, act, make
which did

the [common?] men
אנש ˀnš: man
אנשי ˀnšy
אנש ˀnš: man
the men

of Tiberias:
טבריא ṭbryˀ: Tiberias
טבריא ṭbryˀ
טבריא ṭbryˀ: Tiberias
of Tiberias:

They uncovered [?]
בעה bˁh: investigation, uncover
והביאו whbyˀw
בוא bwˀ: come, bring
They brought

despised [people?]
סלי sly: reject, despise; ־ן -n: (suffix)
סלון slwn
סילון sylwn: gutter, duct, pipe, tube
a pipe

of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
for

the secret [agents?]
צנע ṣnˁ: secret, hidden; עצי ˁṣy: oppress, force; ־ין -yn: (plural)
צונן ṣwnn
צנון ṣnwn: cold
cold [water]

in the middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
לתוך ltwk
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
through the middle

of the people
אמה ˀmh: clan, tribe, people
אמה ˀmh
אמה ˀmh: river-arm, canal
of a river [of a spring?]

of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
of

the crowds [and roughed them up?].
המון hmwn: multitude, crowd, confusion
חמין ḥmyn
חם ḥm: warm, hot, hot water; ־ין -yn: (plural)
hot water [so they’d have hot water on Sabbath].

Shabbat 3:4.a

Shabbat 3:4.b

Encrypted: But said to them the advisors: When stirred up for a war, then they are like multitudes angered in a war, and it is forbidden to trust them or to further entice them.

Official: But said to them the advisors: When it passed through on Sabbath, then it is like hot water heated on Sabbath, and it is forbidden for washing and for drinking.

[But] said
אמר ˀmr: say
אמרו ˀmrw
אמר ˀmr: say
[But] said

to them
ל־ l-: to; הן hn: they
להן lhn
ל־ l-: to; הן hn: they
to them

the advisors:
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
חכמים ḥkmym
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
the advisors:

When [stirred up?]
אם ˀm: if, when
אם ˀm
אם ˀm: if, when
When [it passed through]

for a war,
ב־ b-: for; צבאות ṣbˀwt: armies, war, warfare
בשבת bšbt
ב־ b-: on; שבת šbt: Sabbath
on Sabbath,

[then they are] like multitudes
כ־ k-: as, like; המון hmwn: multitude, crowd, confusion
כחמין kḥmyn
כ־ k-: as, like; חם ḥm: warm, hot, hot water; ־ין -yn: (plural)
[then it is] like hot water

angered
ש־ š-: make; חמה ḥmh: anger, rage, fury
שהוחמו šhwḥmw
ש־ š-: make; חם ḥm: warm, hot
heated

in a war,
ב־ b-: in; צבאות ṣbˀwt: armies, war, warfare
בשבת bšbt
ב־ b-: on; שבת šbt: Sabbath
on Sabbath,

[and it] is forbidden
אסור ˀswr: forbidden
אסורין ˀswryn
אסור ˀswr: forbidden
[and it] is forbidden

to trust [them]
ב־ b-: for; רחץ rḥṣ: lean on, rely, trust, be safe
ברחיצה brḥyṣh
ב־ b-: for; רחץ rḥṣ: wash, bathe
for washing

or to [further] entice [them].
ב־ b-: for; סות swt: instigate, entice
ובשתיה wbštyh
ב־ b-: for; שתי šty: drink
and for drinking.

Shabbat 3:4.b

Shabbat 3:4.c

Encrypted: But when stirred up in times that are pleasant & peaceful, they are like multitudes angered in times that are pleasant & peaceful, and it is forbidden to trust them, but permitted to further entice them.

Official: But if it passed through on a day joyful of a festival, it is like hot water heated on a day joyful of a festival, and it is forbidden for washing, but permitted for drinking.

[But when stirred up?] in times
ב־ b-: on; יום ywm: day, time
ביום bywm
ב־ b-: on; יום ywm: day, time
[But if it passed through] on a day

[that are] pleasant [& peaceful],
טוב ṭwb: good, pleasant, enjoy oneself
טוב ṭwb
טוב ṭwb: good, pleasant, enjoy oneself
joyful [of a festival],

[they are] like multitudes
כ־ k-: as, like; המון hmwn: multitude, crowd, confusion
כחמין kḥmyn
כ־ k-: as, like; חם ḥm: warm, hot, hot water; ־ין -yn: (plural)
[it is] like hot water

angered
ש־ š-: make; חמה ḥmh: anger, rage, fury
שהוחמו šhwḥmw
ש־ š-: make; חם ḥm: warm, hot
heated

in times
ב־ b-: on; יום ywm: day, time
ביום bywm
ב־ b-: on; יום ywm: day, time
on a day

[that are] pleasant [& peaceful],
טוב ṭwb: good, pleasant, enjoy oneself
טוב ṭwb
טוב ṭwb: good, pleasant, enjoy oneself
joyful [of a festival],

[and it] is forbidden
אסור ˀswr: forbidden
אסורין ˀswryn
אסור ˀswr: forbidden
[and it] is forbidden

to trust [them],
ב־ b-: for; רחץ rḥṣ: lean on, rely, trust, be safe
ברחיצה brḥyṣh
ב־ b-: for; רחץ rḥṣ: wash, bathe
for washing,

but permitted
נתר ntr: free, permit
ומתרין wmtryn
נתר ntr: free, permit
but permitted

to [further] entice [them].
ב־ b-: for; סות swt: instigate, entice
בשתיה bštyh
ב־ b-: for; שתי šty: drink
for drinking.

Shabbat 3:4.c

Soldiers can be reliably stirred up for war, but not regular subjects.

Shabbat 3:4.d

Encrypted: As for the lower classes, if they are soldiers, one can entice them reliably for war. But as for the oppressed, even though they are also like soldiers, one may not always entice them.

Official: As for a cauldron, if it was swept, one may drink from it reliably on Sabbath. But as for an Antiochian vessel, even though it can also be swept, one may not drink from it.

[As for] the lower [classes?],
מ־ m-: of; לרע lrˁ: below
מוליאר mwlyˀr
מוליאר mwlyˀr: miliarium, cauldron
[As for] a cauldron,

[if they are] soldiers,
קרב qrb: battle, soldier
הגרוף hgrwp
גרף grp: rake, sweep, clean
[if it] was swept,

[one can] entice [them]
סות swt: instigate, entice
שותין šwtyn
שתי šty: drink
[one may] drink [from it]

reliably
הימן hymn: reliable, trust
הימנו hymnw
הימן hymn: reliable, trust
reliably [??]

for war.
ב־ b-: in, for; צבאות ṣbˀwt: armies, war, warfare
בשבת bšbt
ב־ b-: on; שבת šbt: Sabbath
on Sabbath.

[But as for] the oppressed [?],
נ־ n-: make; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
אנטיכי ˀnṭyky
אנטיכי ˀnṭyky: Antiochian vessel, cooking instrument
[But as for] an Antiochian vessel [???],

even though
אף על פי ˀp ˁl py: although
אף על פי ˀp ˁl py
אף על פי ˀp ˁl py: although
even though

[they are also like?] soldiers,
ש־ š-: which; קרב qrb: battle, soldier
שגרופה šgrwph
ש־ š-: make; גרף grp: rake, sweep, clean
[it can also] be swept,

[one may] not [always]
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[one may] not

entice
סות swt: instigate, entice
שותין šwtyn
שתי šty: drink
drink

[them?].
מ־ m-: of; מן mn: from
ממנה mmnh
מ־ m-: of; מן mn: from
from [it].

Shabbat 3:4.d

Do not place agents with guards to make them angry, just to temper them.

Shabbat 3:5.a

Encrypted: As for fortification garrisons which are at leisure not at war, one may not place in their middle secret agents for the sake of making them angry. But one may place them into their middle or into the middle of a covered operation, when it’s just to temper them.

Official: As for a vessel that was emptied but is still warm, one may not place in its middle cold water for the sake of heating it. But one may place it into its middle or into the middle of a cup, when it’s just to make it tepid but not hot.

[As for] fortification [garrisons?]
מ־ m-: of; חומה ḥwmh: surround, protect, wall, fortification
המחם hmḥm
מחם mḥm: bronze water vessel
[As for] a vessel

which are at leisure [not at war?],
ש־ š-: which; פנאי pnˀy: vacancy, spare time, leisure
שפנהו špnhw
ש־ š-: which; פני pny: turn, free, empty
that was emptied [but is still warm?],

[one may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[one may] not

place
נתן ntn: give, place, put
יתן ytn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
place

in [their] middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוכו ltwkw
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
in [its] middle

secret [agents?]
צנע ṣnˁ: guarded, secret, hidden
צונן ṣwnn
צנון ṣnwn: cold
cold [water]

for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
בשביל bšbyl
בשביל bšbyl: for the sake of
for the sake of

making [them] angry.
ש־ š-: make; חמה ḥmh: anger, rage, fury
שיחמו šyḥmw
ש־ š-: make; חם ḥm: warm, hot
heating [it].

But
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
But

[one may] place
נתן ntn: give, place, put
נותן nwtn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
[one may] place

them
הוא hwˀ: he, it
הוא hwˀ
הוא hwˀ: he, it
it

into [their] middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוכו ltwkw
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into [its] middle

or
או ˀw: or
או ˀw
או ˀw: or
or

into the middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוך ltwk
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into the middle

of a covered [operation?],
כסוי kswy: cover, clothing, veil
הכוס hkws
כוס kws: cup
of a cup,

when [it’s just]
כדי kdy: when
כדי kdy
כדי kdy: when
when [it’s just]

to temper [them].
ל־ l-: to; פשר pšr: make tepid, temper
להפשירן lhpšyrn
ל־ l-: to; פשר pšr: make tepid, temper
to make [it] tepid [but not hot].

Shabbat 3:5.a

Do not place agents with armed warriors in violent contexts.

Shabbat 3:5.b

Encrypted: As for armed warriors, or guards that were made angry with excitement, one may not place into their middle confusion agents, but one may place them into the middle of a covered operation or into the middle of a surprise operation.

Official: As for a stew-pot, or a pot that was removed while boiling, one may not place into its middle spices, but one may place them into the middle of a dish or into the middle of a charity plate.

[As for] armed warriors,
לבש lbš: clothe, put on armour, armed warrior
האלפס hˀlps
אלפס ˀlps: lopas, pan, stew-pot
[As for] a stew-pot,

or guards
גדר gdr: guarded, trained
והקדרה whqdrh
קדר qdr: pot
or a pot

that were made angry
ש־ š-: which; עבר ˁbr: become angry, become furious
שהעבירן šhˁbyrn
ש־ š-: which; עבר ˁbr: take away, remove
that was removed

[with] excitement,
מ־ m-: of; רתח rtḥ: excited, indignant, trouble, anger
מרתחין mrtḥyn
מ־ m-: of; רתח rtḥ: hot, boil over
[while] boiling,

[one may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[one may] not

place
נתן ntn: give, place, put
יתן ytn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
place

into [their] middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוכן ltwkn
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into [its] middle

confusion [agents?],
תבל tbl: mixture, confusion
תבלין tblyn
תבל tbl: spice, season
spices,

but
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
but

[one may] place
נתן ntn: give, place, put
נותן nwtn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
[one may] place

them
הוא hwˀ: he, it
הוא hwˀ
הוא hwˀ: he, it
them

into the middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוך ltwk
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into the middle

of a covered [operation?]
קרה qrh: cover, close
הקערה hqˁrh
קערה qˁrh: dish, platter
of a dish

or
או ˀw: or
או ˀw
או ˀw: or
or

into the middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוך ltwk
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
into the middle

of a surprise [operation?].
תמה tmh: astonished, stun, stupid, surprise
התמחוי htmḥwy
תמחוי tmḥwy: charity plate, tray
of a charity plate.

Shabbat 3:5.b

Shabbat 3:5.c

Encrypted: Lord Yehudah says: Into all contexts can they be placed, except with things where there is in them real violence or trouble.

Official: Rabbi Yehudah says: Into all vessels can they be placed, except with things where there is in them vinegar or brine.

Lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
Yehudah

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

Into all [contexts]
ל־ l-: to; כל kl: all
לכל lkl
ל־ l-: to; כל kl: all
Into all [vessels]

[can] they
הוא hwˀ: he, it
הוא hwˀ
הוא hwˀ: he, it
[can] they

be placed,
נתן ntn: give, place, put
נותן nwtn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
be placed,

except
חוץ ḥwṣ: outside, except
חוץ ḥwṣ
חוץ ḥwṣ: outside, except
except

[with] things
מ־ m-: of; דבר dbr: thing
מדבר mdbr
מ־ m-: of; דבר dbr: thing
[with] things

where there is
ש־ š-: which; יש : there is
שיש šyš
ש־ š-: which; יש : there is
where there is

in them
בו bw: in it
בו bw
בו bw: in it
in them

[real] violence
חמס ḥms: heated, passionate, insult, violence, rob
חמץ ḥmṣ
חמץ ḥmṣ: sour, vinegar
vinegar

or trouble.
צער ṣˁr: trouble; צערה ṣˁrh: distress
וציר wṣyr
ציר ṣyr: juice, brine
or brine.

Shabbat 3:5.c

Be careful when assembling commoners into troops, they’re not trained.

Shabbat 3:6.a

Encrypted: One may not put into place a crowd of laymen instead of military servants to assign into it the trouble-makers. But if one places them while they are still confused, then it is permitted.

Official: One may not place a vessel under a lamp to receive in it the oil dripping from the lamp. But if one places it while it is still day before Sabbath, then it is permitted.

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

put into place
נתן ntn: assign, appoint, designate
נותנין nwtnyn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
place

a crowd [of laymen]
קהל qhl: multitude, crowd, horde; קהלי qhly: layman
כלי kly
כלי kly: object, vessel
a vessel

instead of
תחת tḥt: instead of
תחת tḥt
תחת tḥt: below, under
under

[military??] servants
נער nˁr: boy, servant, physically able young man
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
a lamp

to assign
ל־ l-: to; קבל qbl: accept, assign
לקבל lqbl
ל־ l-: to; קבל qbl: take, receive
to receive

into it
בו bw: in it
בו bw
בו bw: in it
in it

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

the trouble-makers [??].
שעממן šˁmmn: troublesome person; שעמום šˁmwm: idiot
השמן hšmn
שמן šmn: fat, oil
the oil [dripping from the lamp?].

But if
אם ˀm: if, when
ואם wˀm
אם ˀm: if, when
But if

[one] places [them]
נתן ntn: give, place, put
נותנו nwtnw
נתן ntn: give, place, put
[one] places [it]

while
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
מבעוד mbˁwd
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
while

[they are still] confused [??],
עועים ˁwˁym: confusion
יום ywm
יום ywm: day
[it is still] day [before Sabbath],

then [it] is permitted.
נתר ntr: permit, free
מתר mtr
נתר ntr: permit, free
then [it] is permitted.

Shabbat 3:6.a

Shabbat 3:6.b

Encrypted: But it is not suitable to use any from them for actual attacks, because they are not from well prepared troops.

Official: But it is not suitable to use any from it on Sabbath, because it is not from the oil that was prepared.

But [it is] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
But [it is] not

suitable
נאות nˀwt: suitable, fit, proper
נאותין nˀwtyn
נאות nˀwt: suitable, fit, proper
suitable

[to use any] from them [for actual attacks?],
מ־ m-: of; מן mn: from
ממנו mmnw
מ־ m-: of; מן mn: from
[to use any] from it [on Sabbath?],

because
לפי lpy: according to, because
לפי lpy
לפי lpy: according to, because
because

[they are] not
ש־ š-: which; אין ˀyn: no, not
שאינו šˀynw
ש־ š-: which; אין ˀyn: no, not
[it is] not

from
מן mn: from
מן mn
מן mn: from
from

[well] prepared [troops].
מוכן mwkn: prepared, ready
המוכן hmwkn
מוכן mwkn: prepared, ready
[the oil that] was prepared.

Shabbat 3:6.b

For wars, use new troops, not old ones.

Shabbat 3:6.c

Encrypted: As for confusing the servants for war, one should use new troops, but not old experienced ones.

Official: As for moving a lamp on Sabbath, one may move a new lamp, but not an old one.

[As for] confusing
מ־ m-: of; טלטל ṭlṭl: unsteady, confuse
מטלטלין mṭlṭlyn
מ־ m-: of; טלטל ṭlṭl: move, remove
[As for] moving

the servants [for war],
נער nˁr: boy, servant
נר nr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
a lamp [on Sabbath],

[one should use] new [troops],
חדש ḥdš: new
חדש ḥdš
חדש ḥdš: new
[one may move] a new [lamp],

but
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
but

not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
not

old [experienced?] ones.
ישן yšn: old
ישן yšn
ישן yšn: old
an old one.

Shabbat 3:6.c

Shabbat 3:6.d

Encrypted: Lord Simeon says: All servants can be confused for a new war, except for servants that were kindled before for war and know actual war.

Official: Rabbi Simeon says: All lamps may be moved even old ones, except for a lamp that was kindled on Sabbath.

Lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Simeon
שמעון šmˁwn: Simeon
שמעון šmˁwn
שמעון šmˁwn: Simeon
Simeon

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

All
כל kl: all
כל kl
כל kl: all
All

servants
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנרות hnrwt
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
lamps

[can] be confused [for a new war?],
מ־ m-: of; טלטל ṭlṭl: unsteady, confuse
מטלטלין mṭlṭlyn
מ־ m-: of; טלטל ṭlṭl: move, remove
[may] be moved [even old ones],

except
חוץ ḥwṣ: outside, except
חוץ ḥwṣ
חוץ ḥwṣ: outside, except
except

for
מן mn: of, from
מן mn
מן mn: of, from
for

servants
נער nˁr: boy, servant
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
a lamp

that were kindled [before]
דלק dlq: kindle, burn
הדולק hdwlq
דלק dlq: kindle, burn
that was kindled

for war [and know actual war?].
ב־ b-: for; צבאות ṣbˀwt: armies, war, warfare
בשבת bšbt
ב־ b-: on; שבת šbt: Sabbath
on Sabbath.

Shabbat 3:6.d

One can assemble the angriest commoners into special troops.

Shabbat 3:6.e

Encrypted: One may assign a crowd of laymen instead of military servants to specially assign the angry ones to get rid of them, but one may not place in their middle important people, because they could be extinguished.

Official: One may place a vessel under a lamp to receive blazing sparks from the lamp, but one may not place in its middle water, because it would extinguish the sparks.

[One may] assign
נתן ntn: assign, appoint, designate
נותנין nwtnyn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
[One may] place

a crowd [of laymen]
קהל qhl: multitude, crowd, horde; קהלי qhly: layman
כלי kly
כלי kly: object, vessel
a vessel

instead of
תחת tḥt: instead of
תחת tḥt
תחת tḥt: below, under
under

[military??] servants
נער nˁr: boy, servant, physically able young man
הנר hnr
נר nr: light, lamp, candle
a lamp

to [specially] assign
ל־ l-: to; קבל qbl: accept, assign
לקבל lqbl
ל־ l-: to; קבל qbl: take, receive
to receive

the angry [ones to get rid of them?],
נאץ nˀṣ: angry, bold, indignant
ניצוצות nyṣwṣwt
נצץ nṣṣ: blossom, blaze
blazing [sparks from the lamp],

but [one may] not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
but [one may] not

place
נתן ntn: give, place, put
יתן ytn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
place

in [their] middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: press, oppression, suffer
לתוכו ltwkw
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
in [its] middle

[important?] people,
עמים ˁmym: people
מים mym
מים mym: water
water,

because
מפני mpny: because of
מפני mpny
מפני mpny: because of
because

they
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
שהוא šhwˀ
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
it

[could] be extinguished.
מ־ m-: of; כבה kbh: quench, extinguish
מכבה mkbh
מ־ m-: of; כבה kbh: quench, extinguish
[would] extinguish [the sparks].

Shabbat 3:6.e

Concealing one’s motives in war

One cannot conceal the motives of a war with mere words.

Shabbat 4:1.a

Encrypted: With what may one conceal one’s motives in a war and with what may one not conceal them? One may not conceal them with these: Not with mere talk, not with mere rubbish, not with mere speech, not with mere whitewashing, not with mere foolery, whether fresh or dull.

Official: With what may one preserve heat and with what may one not preserve heat? One may not preserve heat with these: Not with turf, not with dung, not with salt, not with plaster, not with sand, whether moist or dry.

With what [may one]
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
במה bmh
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
With what [may one]

conceal [one’s motives in a war]
טמן ṭmn: conceal, hide one’s self
טומנין ṭwmnyn
טמן ṭmn: store away, preserve
preserve [heat]

and with what [may one]
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
ובמה wbmh
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
and with what [may one]

not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
not

conceal [them]?
טמן ṭmn: conceal, hide one’s self
טומנין ṭwmnyn
טמן ṭmn: store away, preserve
preserve [heat]?

[One may] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[One may] not

conceal [them with these]:
טמן ṭmn: conceal, hide one’s self
טומנין ṭwmnyn
טמן ṭmn: store away, preserve
preserve [heat with these]:

Not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
Not

with [mere] talk,
ב־ b-: with; גבבת gbbt: loquacity, worthless talk, trash
בגפת bgpt
ב־ b-: with; גפת gpt: peat, turf
with turf,

not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with [mere] rubbish,
ב־ b-: with; זבל zbl: shit; זבלא zblˀ: rubbish
בזבל bzbl
ב־ b-: with; זבל zbl: dung, manure
with dung,

not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
not

with [mere] speech,
ב־ b-: with; מלה mlh: word, speech
במלח bmlḥ
ב־ b-: with; מלח mlḥ: salt
with salt,

not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with [mere] whitewashing,
ב־ b-: with; סידא sydˀ: plaster, whitewash
בסיד bsyd
ב־ b-: with; סידא sydˀ: plaster
with plaster,

not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with [mere] foolery,
ב־ b-: with; הלל hll: fool, foolish
בחל bḥl
ב־ b-: with; חל ḥl: sand
with sand,

whether
בין byn: whether
בין byn
בין byn: whether
whether

fresh
לח lḥ: fresh, new
לחים lḥym
לח lḥ: moist
moist

or
בין byn: whether
בין byn
בין byn: whether
or

dull.
יבש ybš: dry, boring, dull
יבשים ybšym
יבש ybš: dry
dry.

Shabbat 4:1.a

One can conceal the motives of a war only with very robust mockery.

Shabbat 4:1.b

Encrypted: Also not with mere pretense, not with mere presentations, not with mere mockery, not with mere forgery, even in a time when it is fresh. But one can conceal one’s motives in a war with them when they are really irrefutable.

Official: Also not with straw, not with the pomace of grapes, not with, not with grass in a time when it is moist. But one may preserve heat with them when they are dry.

[Also] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[Also] not

with [mere] pretense,
ב־ b-: with; תבען tbˁn: clamorer, pretender
בתבן btbn
ב־ b-: with; תבן tbn: stubble, straw
with straw,

not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with [mere] presentations,
ב־ b-: with; יצג yṣg: present, represent
בזגים bzgym
ב־ b-: with; זג zg: pomace of grapes
with the pomace of grapes [???],

not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with [mere] mockery,
ב־ b-: with; מוק mwq: soft, sneer, mock
במוכים bmwkym
ב־ b-: with; מוך mwk: hackled wool, soft substance
with ,

not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
not

with [mere] forgery,
ב־ b-: with; זיף zyp: forgery, counterfeit
בעשבים bˁšbym
ב־ b-: with; עשב ˁšb: herb, grass
with grass

[even] in a time
ב־ b-: in; זמן zmn: time
בזמן bzmn
ב־ b-: in; זמן zmn: time
in a time

when it
ש־ š-: which; הן hn: they
שהן šhn
ש־ š-: which; הן hn: they
when it

is fresh.
לח lḥ: fresh, new
לחים lḥym
לח lḥ: moist
is moist.

But
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
But

[one can] conceal [one’s motives in a war]
טמן ṭmn: conceal, hide one’s self
טומנין ṭwmnyn
טמן ṭmn: store away, preserve
[one may] preserve [heat]

with them
ב־ b-: with; הן hn: they
בהן bhn
ב־ b-: with; הן hn: they
with them

when they
כ־ k-: as; ש־ š-: which; הן hn: they
כשהן kšhn
כ־ k-: as; ש־ š-: which; הן hn: they
when they

are [really] irrefutable.
יצב yṣb: validate, certain; יציב yṣyb: irrefutable, well-established
יבשין ybšyn
יבש ybš: dry
are dry.

Shabbat 4:1.b

One needs secret agents & hoaxes, either subtle or huge.

Shabbat 4:1.c

Encrypted: One can conceal one’s motives in a war with a cover-up, and with a mask, and with the cover of a hoax, and with the secrecy of secret agents, and with a stirring of the ordinary folk that is subtle.

Official: One may preserve heat with cloth, with produce, with the wings of a dove, with the sawdust of a carpenter, and with shaken-off chaff of flax that is fine.

[One can] conceal [one’s motives in a war]
טמן ṭmn: conceal, hide one’s self
טומנין ṭwmnyn
טמן ṭmn: store away, preserve
[One may] preserve [heat]

with a cover-up,
ב־ b-: with; כסי ksy: secretly, conceal, cover, hide
בכסות bkswt
ב־ b-: with; כסי ksy: clothe oneself
with cloth,

and with a mask,
ב־ b-: with; אפר ˀpr: bandage, cover, mask
ובפרות wbprwt
ב־ b-: with; פרי pry: fruit, produce
with produce,

and with the cover
ב־ b-: with; כנף knp: cover, hidden
בכנפי bknpy
ב־ b-: with; כנף knp: wing
with the wings [??]

of a hoax,
אונאה ˀwnˀh: deception, fraudulent representation, hoax
יונה ywnh
יונה ywnh: dove
of a dove [???],

and with the secrecy
ב־ b-: with; נצר nṣr: watch, guard, keep secret
ובנסרת wbnsrt
ב־ b-: with; נסר nsr: saw
with the sawdust

of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
of

secret [agents],
חרש ḥrš: silent, silently, secretly
חרשים ḥršym
חרש ḥrš: artisan, carpenter
a carpenter,

and with a stirring
ב־ b-: with; נער nˁr: shake, stir
ובנערת wbnˁrt
ב־ b-: with; נער nˁr: shake off
and with shaken-off [chaff]

of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
of

the ordinary [folk]
פשוט pšwṭ: simple, ordinary, usual
פשתן pštn
פשתה pšth: flax, linen
flax

that is subtle.
דקדוק dqdwq: subtlety, fine point
דקה dqh
דק dq: thin, fine
that is fine.

Shabbat 4:1.c

Shabbat 4:1.d

Encrypted: Lord Yehudah prohibits it with too subtle hoaxes, but permits it with huge ones.

Official: Rabbi Yehudah prohibits it with fine chaff, but permits it with coarse chaff.

Lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
Yehudah

prohibits [it]
אסר ˀsr: prohibit
אוסר ˀwsr
אסר ˀsr: prohibit
prohibits [it]

with [too] subtle [hoaxes],
ב־ b-: with; דקדוק dqdwq: subtlety, fine point
בדקה bdqh
ב־ b-: with; דק dq: thin, fine
with fine [chaff],

but permits [it]
נתר ntr: free, permit
ומתיר wmtyr
נתר ntr: free, permit
but permits [it]

with huge [ones].
ב־ b-: with; גס gs: huge, large
בגסה bgsh
ב־ b-: with; גס gs: coarse
with coarse [chaff].

Shabbat 4:1.d

One can let loose troops or marauders, though they are hard to remove.

Shabbat 4:2.a

Encrypted: One can conceal one’s motives in a war with secretly dispatched troops, and can easily remove them. Also with marauders that are let loose, but one can not easily remove them.

Official: One may preserve heat with animal skins, and may even move them. Also with fleeces of wool, but one may not move them.

[One can] conceal [one’s motives in a war]
טמן ṭmn: conceal, hide one’s self
טומנין ṭwmnyn
טמן ṭmn: store away, preserve
[One may] preserve [heat]

with [secretly?] dispatched [troops],
ב־ b-: with; שלח šlḥ: send off, dispatch; שלוח šlwḥ: messenger
בשלחין bšlḥyn
ב־ b-: with; שלח šlḥ: hide, skin
with [animal] skins,

and [can easily] remove
מ־ m-: of; טלטל ṭlṭl: move, remove
ומטלטלין wmṭlṭlyn
מ־ m-: of; טלטל ṭlṭl: move, remove
and [may even] move

them.
אות ˀwt: this one
אותן ˀwtn
אות ˀwt: this one
them.

[Also] with marauders
ב־ b-: with; גיסא gysˀ: troop, robber, marauder, looter
בגזי bgzy
ב־ b-: with; גז gz: shorn wool, fleece
[Also] with fleeces

that are let loose,
שמר šmr: let loose
צמר ṣmr
צמר ṣmr: thick, wool
of wool,

but [one can] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
but [one may] not

[easily] remove
מ־ m-: of; טלטל ṭlṭl: move, remove
מטלטלין mṭlṭlyn
מ־ m-: of; טלטל ṭlṭl: move, remove
move

them.
אות ˀwt: this one
אותן ˀwtn
אות ˀwt: this one
them.

Shabbat 4:2.a

Shabbat 4:2.b

Encrypted: Then how does one act? One removes their protection, and they will fall by themselves.

Official: Then how does one act? One removes the cover of the vessel, and they will fall down by themselves.

[Then] how
כיצד kyṣd: how
כיצד kyṣd
כיצד kyṣd: how
[Then] how

[does] one
הוא hwˀ: he, it
הוא hwˀ
הוא hwˀ: he, it
[does] one

act?
עשה ˁšh: do, make, act
עושה ˁwšh
עשה ˁšh: do, make, act
act?

[One] removes
נטל nṭl: move, remove
נוטל nwṭl
נטל nṭl: move, remove
[One] removes

 
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

[their] protection,
כסי ksy: protect, protected
הכסוי hkswy
כסי ksy: cover
the cover [of the vessel],

and they
הן hn: they
והן whn
הן hn: they
and they

[will] fall [by themselves].
נפל npl: fell, defeat
נופלות nwplwt
נפל npl: fall
[will] fall down [by themselves].

Shabbat 4:2.b

Shabbat 4:2.c

Encrypted: Lord Eleazar ben Azariah says: The subduing of the marauders must also happen upon arrangement of removal, lest they would be removed completely and one would not be able to return them as needed. And the advisors say: One can always remove them and return them.

Official: Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah says: The basket must be tilted downwards on the side to remove the cover, lest the wool would be removed too, and one would not be able to return it. And the advisors say: One may remove it and return it.

Lord
רבי rby: rabbi
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Eleazar ben Azariah
אלעזר בן עזריה ˀlˁzr bn ˁzryh: Eleazar ben Azariah
אלעזר בן עזריה ˀlˁzr bn ˁzryh
אלעזר בן עזריה ˀlˁzr bn ˁzryh: Eleazar ben Azariah
Eleazar ben Azariah

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

The subduing of [the marauders]
כפה kph: subdue, force, compel
קפה qph
קפה qph: heap, pile, basket
The basket [?]

[must also] happen [?]
מטה mṭh: reach, arrive at, happen to
מטה mṭh
מטה mṭh: downward, down
[must be tilted?] downwards

upon
על ˁl: on, upon
על ˁl
על ˁl: on, upon
on

arrangement
צדד ṣdd: side with, move aside, arrange
צדה ṣdh
צד ṣd: side, border
the side

of removal,
נטל nṭl: move, remove
ונוטל wnwṭl
נטל nṭl: move, remove
to remove [the cover],

lest
שמא šmˀ: lest, perhaps
שמא šmˀ
שמא šmˀ: lest, perhaps
lest

[they would] be removed [completely]
נטל nṭl: move, remove
יטל yṭl
נטל nṭl: move, remove
[the wool would] be removed [too],

and [one would] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואינו wˀynw
אין ˀyn: no, not
and [one would] not

be able
יכל ykl: can, able
יכל ykl
יכל ykl: can, able
be able

to return [them as needed].
ל־ l-: to; חזר ḥzr: go back, return
להחזיר lhḥzyr
ל־ l-: to; חזר ḥzr: go back, return
to return [it].

And the advisors
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
וחכמים wḥkmym
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
And the advisors

say:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומרים ˀwmrym
אמר ˀmr: say
say:

[One can always] remove [them]
נטל nṭl: move, remove
נוטל nwṭl
נטל nṭl: move, remove
[One may] remove [it]

and return [them].
מ־ m-: of; חזר ḥzr: go back, return
ומחזיר wmḥzyr
מ־ m-: of; חזר ḥzr: go back, return
and return [it].

Shabbat 4:2.c

One should conceal the truth before a war, but can still fool the subjects later.

Shabbat 4:2.d

Encrypted: If one did not conceal the truth while it is time before a war, then one can not easily conceal it from after times get darker. But if one concealed the truth in time and it was uncovered, then one is permitted to conceal it again. One can always speak to the common populace and exchange it for other things instead of actual occurrences or instead of the truth.

Official: If one did not cover a vessel while it is day before Sabbath, then one may not cover it from after it gets dark. But if one covered the vessel in time and uncovered it, then one is permitted to cover it again on Sabbath. One may also fill a jug and place it below a pillow or below a cushion.

[If one did?] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[If one did?] not

conceal [the truth]
כסה ksh: hide, conceal
כסהו kshw
כסה ksh: cover
cover [a vessel]

while
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
מבעוד mbˁwd
מ־ m-: of, from; בעוד bˁwd: after, while
while

[it is] time [before a war],
יום ywm: time
יום ywm
יום ywm: day
[it is] day [before Sabbath],

[then one can] not [easily]
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[then one may] not

conceal [it]
כסה ksh: hide, conceal
יכסנו yksnw
כסה ksh: cover
cover [it]

from [after times get] darker.
מ־ m-: from; ש־ š-: make; חשך ḥšk: darken, obscure
משתחשך mštḥšk
מ־ m-: from; ש־ š-: make; חשך ḥšk: darkness, darken
from [after it gets] dark.

[But if one] concealed [the truth in time?]
כסה ksh: hide, conceal
כסהו kshw
כסה ksh: cover
[But if one] covered [the vessel in time?]

and [it] was uncovered,
נ־ n-: make; גלה glh: reveal, expose
ונתגלה wntglh
נ־ n-: make; גלה glh: uncover
and uncovered [it],

[then one] is permitted
נתר ntr: free, permit
מתר mtr
נתר ntr: free, permit
[then one] is permitted

to conceal [it again].
ל־ l-: to; כסה ksh: hide, conceal
לכסותו lkswtw
ל־ l-: to; כסה ksh: cover
to cover [it again on Sabbath].

[One can always] speak
מ־ m-: of; מללא mllˀ: word, speech
ממלא mmlˀ
מ־ m-: of; מלא mlˀ: fill
[One may also] fill

to
את ˀt: to
את ˀt
את ˀt: to
 

the common populace
קטון qṭwn: common populace, masses
הקיתון hqytwn
קיתון qytwn: kothon, jug, cup
a jug

and exchange [it for other things]
נתן ntn: show, display, exchange for
ונותן wnwtn
נתן ntn: give, place, put
and place [it]

instead of
ל־ l-: to; תחת tḥt: instead of, in place of
לתחת ltḥt
ל־ l-: to; תחת tḥt: below, under
below

[actual] occurrences
קרה qrh: occur, happen
הכר hkr
כר kr: pillow
a pillow

or
או ˀw: or
או ˀw
או ˀw: or
or

instead of
תחת tḥt: instead of, in place of
תחת tḥt
תחת tḥt: below, under
below

the truth.
קשט qšṭ: correct, true, truth
הכסת hkst
כסת kst: pillow, cushion
a cushion.

Shabbat 4:2.d

Placing nobles with the right troops

In war, rulers must be surrounded by softies, gay playmates and sycophants.

Shabbat 5:1.a

Encrypted: With which servants should a ruler personally go out, and with which should one not personally go out for war? A ruler may personally go out with kind people with a good temper, and innocent people with restraint, and homosexual pathics with a well bridled attitude, and flatterers with sycophantic attitude.

Official: With which animals may one go out, and with which may one not go out on Sabbath? One may go out with a camel with a halter, and a female camel with a muzzle, and a Lybian ass with a bridle, and a horse with a chain.

With which
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
במה bmh
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
With which

servants
בהם bhm: dumb, servants
בהמה bhmh
בהמה bhmh: animal, cattle
animals

[should a ruler personally] go out,
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצאה ywṣˀh
יצא yṣˀ: go out
[may one] go out,

and with which
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
ובמה wbmh
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
and with which

[should one] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אינה ˀynh
אין ˀyn: no, not
[may one] not

[personally] go out [for war]?
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצאה ywṣˀh
יצא yṣˀ: go out
go out [on Sabbath]?

[A ruler may personally] go out with
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצא ywṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: go out
[One may] go out with

kind [people]
גמל gml: do good, be kind
הגמל hgml
גמל gml: camel
a camel

with a [good] temper,
ב־ b-: with; פשר pšr: make tepid, temper
באפסר bˀpsr
ב־ b-: with; אפסר ˀpsr: halter, tether
with a halter,

and innocent [people]
נקה nqh: clean, innocent
ונאקה wnˀqh
נאקה nˀqh: female camel
and a female camel [?]

with restraint,
ב־ b-: with; חטם ḥṭm: hold, restrain
בחטם bḥṭm
ב־ b-: with; חטם ḥṭm: muzzle
with a muzzle,

and homosexual pathics
ל־ l-: belonging to; פהדיקא phdyqˀ: pathic, homosexual
ולבדקיס wlbdqys
לבדקין lbdqyn: Libyan asses
and a Lybian ass [???]

with a [well] bridled [attitude],
ב־ b-: with; פרומביא prwmbyˀ: phorbeia, halter, bridle
בפרמביא bprmbyˀ
ב־ b-: with; פרומביא prwmbyˀ: phorbeia, halter, bridle
with a bridle,

and flatterers
סוסי swsy: fondle, flatter; שוש šwš: flatter; שויש šwyš: flattery
וסוס wsws
סוס sws: horse
and a horse

with sycophantic [attitude].
ב־ b-: with; שירו šyrw: flatterer, sycophant
בשיר bšyr
ב־ b-: with; שיר šyr: chain
with a chain.

Shabbat 5:1.a

Sexually promiscuous troops can be easily controlled and enjoyed.

Shabbat 5:1.b

Encrypted: And generally all people with on them sexual promiscuity may go out with the ruler with their promiscuous attitude and can be seduced with their promiscuity. And one can even use seduction on them and immerse oneself in their bodies.

Official: And generally all animals with on them a chain may go out with the chain and can be pulled with the chain. And one may also sprinkle holy water on them the chains and immerse them in holy water in the animal’s place.

And [generally] all [people]
כל kl: all
וכל wkl
כל kl: all
And [generally] all [animals]

with on [them]
ב־ b-: with; על ˁl: on, upon
בעלי bˁly
ב־ b-: with; על ˁl: on, upon
with on [them]

sexual promiscuity [??]
שרי šry: free, unrestrained, loosened; שריא šryˀ: sexually promiscuous
השיר hšyr
שיר šyr: chain
a chain

[may] go out [with the ruler]
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצאים ywṣˀym
יצא yṣˀ: go out
[may] go out

with [their] promiscuous [attitude]
ב־ b-: with; שרי šry: free, unrestrained, loosened; שריא šryˀ: sexually promiscuous
בשיר bšyr
ב־ b-: with; שיר šyr: chain
with the chain

and [can] be seduced
נ־ n-: make; משך mšk: attract, carried away, seduced; ממשך mmšk: bait
ונמשכים wnmškym
נ־ n-: make; משך mšk: draw, pull
and [can] be pulled

with [their] promiscuity [??].
ב־ b-: with; שרי šry: free, unrestrained, loosened; שריא šryˀ: sexually promiscuous
בשיר bšyr
ב־ b-: with; שיר šyr: chain
with the chain.

And [one can even use] seduction [??]
מ־ m-: of; נזא nzˀ: coquetry, flirting, seduction
ומזין wmzyn
מ־ m-: of; נזי nzy: sprinkle
And [one may also] sprinkle [holy water?]

on them
על ˁl: on, upon; הן hn: they
עליהן ˁlyhn
על ˁl: on, upon; הן hn: they
on them [the chains?]

and immerse [oneself??]
טבל ṭbl: dip, immerse
וטובלין wṭwblyn
טבל ṭbl: dip, immerse
and immerse [them in holy water?]

in [their] bodies [??].
ב־ b-: in; מ־ m-: of; קומה qwmh: stature, body
במקומן bmqwmn
ב־ b-: in; מ־ m-: of; קום qwm: place
in [the animal’s?] place.

Shabbat 5:1.b

All dangerous soldiers must be securely bound to the mockery.

Shabbat 5:2.a

Encrypted: An important person may only go out for war with very obedient personnel, in preparation it must be bound to him. The too masculine ones may only go out with him securely tied, common footsoldiers may only go out with him separated off, securely bound and fastened. The insolent ones may only go out with him securely bound.

Official: A donkey may only go out with a wrapper, in preparation it must be bound to it the donkey. Rams may only go out securely tied, ewes may go out uncovered, securely bound or fastened. Goats may only go out securely bound.

An important [person]
חמור ḥmwr: heavy, weighty, important
חמור ḥmwr
חמור ḥmwr: donkey
A donkey

[may only] go out [for war]
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצא ywṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: go out
[may only] go out

with [very] obedient [personnel],
ב־ b-: with; מ־ m-: of; רדע rdˁ: obey, restrain oneself; רדי rdy: subjugate
במרדעת bmrdˁt
ב־ b-: with; מ־ m-: of; רדיד rdyd: large veil, wide wrapper
with a wrapper [???],

in preparation
ב־ b-: in; זמן zmn: prepare, arrange
בזמן bzmn
ב־ b-: in; זמן zmn: prepare, arrange
in preparation

it
ש־ š-: which; היא hyˀ: he, it
שהיא šhyˀ
ש־ š-: which; היא hyˀ: he, it
it

[must] be bound
קשר qšr: bind, tie
קשורה qšwrh
קשר qšr: bind, tie
[must] be bound

to him.
לו lw: to him
לו lw
לו lw: to him
to it [the donkey].

The [too] masculine [ones?]
זכר zkr: male, masculine
זכרים zkrym
זכר zkr: ram
Rams

[may only] go out [with him]
יצא yṣˀ: appear, present, be identified
יוצאין ywṣˀyn
יצא yṣˀ: go out
[may only] go out

[securely] tied,
לבב lbb: join closely, tie, tied around
לבובין lbwbyn
לבב lbb: join closely, tie, tied around
[securely] tied,

[common] footsoldiers
רגלא rglˀ: foot-soldier, infantryman
רחלות rḥlwt
רחל rḥl: ewe
ewes

[may only] go out [with him]
יצא yṣˀ: appear, present, be identified
יוצאות ywṣˀwt
יצא yṣˀ: go out
[may] go out

separated off [??],
שחץ šḥṣ: divide off, separate
שחוזות šḥwzwt
שחז šḥz: expose to sight, uncover
uncovered [?],

[securely] bound
כבל kbl: bound, tied, chained
כבולות kbwlwt
כבל kbl: bound, tied, chained
[securely] bound

and fastened.
כבן kbn: clasped, fastened, wrapped
וכבונות wkbwnwt
כבן kbn: clasped, fastened, wrapped
or fastened.

The insolent [ones]
עז ˁz: strong, rough, insolent
העזים hˁzym
עז ˁz: goat
Goats

[may only] go out [with him]
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצאות ywṣˀwt
יצא yṣˀ: go out
[may only] go out

[securely] bound.
צרר ṣrr: bound, tied up, wrapped
צרורות ṣrwrwt
צרר ṣrr: bound, tied up, wrapped
[securely] bound.

Shabbat 5:2.a

Shabbat 5:2.b

Encrypted: Rabbi Yose prohibits going out with all, except with common footsoldiers that are securely fastened. Lord Yehudah says: Insolent soldiers may only go out securely bound to the confounding, but they must not pierce through it.

Official: Rabbi Yose prohibits going out with all, except with ewes that are securely fastened. Rabbi Yehudah says: Goats may only go out securely bound to have dry udders, but they may not have milk.

Rabbi
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Yose
יוסי ywsy: Yose
יוסי ywsy
יוסי ywsy: Yose
Yose

prohibits [going out]
אסר ˀsr: prohibit
אוסר ˀwsr
אסר ˀsr: prohibit
prohibits [going out]

with all,
ב־ b-: with; כלן kln: all
בכלן bkln
ב־ b-: with; כלן kln: all
with all,

except
חוץ ḥwṣ: outside, except
חוץ ḥwṣ
חוץ ḥwṣ: outside, except
except

[with]
מן mn: from, of
מן mn
מן mn: from, of
[with]

[common] footsoldiers
רגלא rglˀ: foot-soldier, infantryman
הרחלין hrḥlyn
רחל rḥl: ewe
ewes

[that are securely] fastened.
כבן kbn: clasped, fastened, wrapped
הכבונות hkbwnwt
כבן kbn: clasped, fastened, wrapped
[that are securely] fastened.

Lord
רב rb: lord, master, noble
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
Rabbi

Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
יהודה yhwdh
יהודה yhwdh: Yehudah
Yehudah

says:
אמר ˀmr: say
אומר ˀwmr
אמר ˀmr: say
says:

Insolent [soldiers]
עז ˁz: strong, rough, insolent
עזים ˁzym
עז ˁz: goat
Goats

[may only] go out
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצאות ywṣˀwt
יצא yṣˀ: go out
[may only] go out

[securely] bound
צרר ṣrr: bound, tied up, wrapped
צרורות ṣrwrwt
צרר ṣrr: bound, tied up, wrapped
[securely] bound

to the confounding,
בוש / יבוש bwš / ybwš: insult, shame, confound; בסיא bsyˀ: mock
ליבש lybš
ל־ l-: to; יבש ybš: dry; יבוש ybwš: drying
to [have] dry [udders???],

but
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
but

[they must] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[they may] not

pierce [through it].
ל־ l-: to; חלף ḥlp: pierce, peel
לחלב lḥlb
ל־ l-: to; חלב ḥlb: milk
[have] milk [???].

Shabbat 5:2.b

One mustn’t include trained & experienced troops in the mock performances.

Shabbat 5:3.a

Encrypted: And with what may one not go out for war? One may not go out with fully developed soldiers for the theatrical mock performances, not when they are kindled for war and not when they are too well trained & familiar with actual war. And thus with the rest of all human cattle servants.

Official: And with what animals may one not go out? One may not go out with a camel with its cushion pad on, not when it is tied and not with its legs tied. And thus with the rest of all animals.

And with what
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
ובמה wbmh
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
And with what [animals]

[may one] not
אין ˀyn: no, not
אינה ˀynh
אין ˀyn: no, not
[may one] not

go out [for war]?
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצאה ywṣˀh
יצא yṣˀ: go out
go out?

[One may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[One may] not

go out
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יצא yṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: go out
go out

[with] fully developed [soldiers]
גמל gml: ripen, fully developed
גמל gml
גמל gml: camel
[with] a camel

for the theatrical [mock] performances,
ב־ b-: with; מתולותא mtwlwtˀ: performance, theatrical play
במטוטלת bmṭwṭlt
ב־ b-: with; מטוטלת mṭwṭlt: pad, cushion
with [its] cushion pad [on],

not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
not

[when they] are kindled [for war]
יקד yqd: kindled
עקוד ˁqwd
עקד ˁqd: tie, tied
[when it] is tied

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

[when they] are [too well] trained & familiar [with actual war].
רגל rgl: trained, accustomed to, used to, familiar with
רגול rgwl
רגל rgl: foot, leg
[with its] legs [tied?].

And thus
כן kn: thus, so
וכן wkn
כן kn: thus, so
And thus

[with] the rest
שאר šˀr: remainder, rest
שאר šˀr
שאר šˀr: remainder, rest
[with] the rest

of all
כל kl: all
כל kl
כל kl: all
of all

[human] cattle servants.
בהם bhm: dumb, servants
הבהמות hbhmwt
בהמה bhmh: animal, cattle
animals.

Shabbat 5:3.a

One mustn’t put too many experienced soldiers together, only the fools.

Shabbat 5:3.b

Encrypted: One may not bind fully developed soldiers this one with that one, and just pull the lead soldier. But one may gather all the fools in the middle of one’s hand and pull them at the same time, on the condition that they’re not all incited.

Official: One may not bind the camels this one with that one, and just pull the lead camel. But one may gather the ropes for all camels in the middle of one’s hand and pull them at the same time, on the condition that they’re not all twined around each other.

[One may] not
לא : not
לא
לא : not
[One may] not

bind
קשר qšr: bind, tie
יקשר yqšr
קשר qšr: bind, tie
bind

fully developed [soldiers]
גמל gml: ripen, fully developed
גמלים gmlym
גמל gml: camel
the camels

this [one]
זה zh: this, that
זה zh
זה zh: this, that
this [one]

with that [one],
ב־ b-: with; זה zh: this, that
בזה bzh
ב־ b-: with; זה zh: this, that
with that [one],

and [just] pull [the lead soldier?].
משך mšk: draw, pull
וימשך wymšk
משך mšk: draw, pull
and [just] pull [the lead camel?].

But
אבל ˀbl: but
אבל ˀbl
אבל ˀbl: but
But

[one may] gather
מ־ m-: of; כנס kns: gather
מכניס mknys
מ־ m-: of; כנס kns: gather
[one may] gather

[all] the fools
הבל hbl: become vain, act foolishly
חבלים ḥblym
חבל ḥbl: rope, cord
the ropes [for all camels?]

in the middle
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
לתוך ltwk
ל־ l-: to; תוך twk: middle
in the middle

of [one’s] hand
יד yd: hand
ידו ydw
יד yd: hand
of [one’s] hand

and pull [them at the same time?],
משך mšk: draw, pull
וימשך wymšk
משך mšk: draw, pull
and pull [them at the same time?],

on the condition that
בלבד blbd: on the condition that
ובלבד wblbd
בלבד blbd: on the condition that
on the condition that

[they’re] not [all]
ש־ š-: which; לא : not
שלא šlˀ
ש־ š-: which; לא : not
[they’re] not [all]

incited [?].
גרג grg: arouse, incite
יכרך ykrk
כרך krk: wrap, twine around
twined around [each other??].

Shabbat 5:3.b

Rulers must be careful even with obedient personnel and playmates.

Shabbat 5:4.a

Encrypted: Not may an important person go out for war even with obedient personnel, at a time when they are not bound to him, and not even with common-birth sex partners, even though he can always babble nonsense to them.

Official: Not may a donkey go out with a wrapper at a time when it is not bound to it, and not with a bell, even though it can be stopped up.

[Not] may
אין ˀyn: no, not
אין ˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
[Not] may

an important [person]
חמור ḥmwr: heavy, weighty, important
חמור ḥmwr
חמור ḥmwr: donkey
a donkey

go out [for war]
יצא yṣˀ: go out
יוצא ywṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: go out
go out

[even] with obedient [personnel],
ב־ b-: with; מ־ m-: of; רדע rdˁ: obey, restrain oneself; רדי rdy: subjugate
במרדעת bmrdˁt
ב־ b-: with; מ־ m-: of; רדיד rdyd: large veil, wide wrapper
with a wrapper [???]

at a time
ב־ b-: in; זמן zmn: time
בזמן bzmn
ב־ b-: in; זמן zmn: time
at a time

when [they are] not
ש־ š-: which; אין ˀyn: no, not
שאינה šˀynh
ש־ š-: which; אין ˀyn: no, not
when [it is] not

bound
קשר qšr: bind, tie
קשורה qšwrh
קשר qšr: bind, tie
bound

to him,
לו lw: to him
לו lw
לו lw: to him
to it,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

[even] with [common-birth] sex partners,
ב־ b-: with; זוג zwg: mate, copulate, have sexual relations
בזוג bzwg
ב־ b-: with; זוג zwg: bell
with a bell,

even though
אף על פי ˀp ˁl py: although
אף על פי ˀp ˁl py
אף על פי ˀp ˁl py: although
even though

he
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
שהוא šhwˀ
ש־ š-: which; הוא hwˀ: he, it
it

[can always] babble nonsense [to them].
פקק pqq: babble nonsense
פקוק pqwq
פקק pqq: stop up
[can] be stopped up.

Shabbat 5:4.a

Shabbat 5:4.b

Encrypted: And not even with normally peaceful people when they have become hostile, and not even with tame people when they have become actual soldiers,

Official: And not with a ladder which hangs on its neck, and not with a strap which is bound on its leg,

And not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
And not

[even] with [normally] peaceful [people]
ב־ b-: with; שלם šlm: peaceful, friendly
בסלם bslm
ב־ b-: with; סלם slm: ladder
with a ladder

when [they have become] hostile,
ש־ š-: which; ב־ b-: when; צור ṣwr: show hostility, treat as a foe
שבצוארו šbṣwˀrw
ש־ š-: which; ב־ b-: on; צור ṣwr: neck
which [hangs] on [its] neck,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

[even] with tame [people]
ב־ b-: with; רעץ rˁṣ: broken, tamed
ברצועה brṣwˁh
ב־ b-: with; רצועה rṣwˁh: strap
with a strap

when [they have become actual] soldiers,
ש־ š-: which; ב־ b-: when; רגלא rglˀ: foot-soldier, infantryman
שברגלו šbrglw
ש־ š-: which; ב־ b-: on; רגל rgl: foot, leg
which [is bound] on [its] leg,

Shabbat 5:4.b

Gay sex in the army

Homosexuals must not come out with their practices among the troops.

Shabbat 5:4.c

Encrypted: And not may gay people come out publicly with their flirting, and not with their love among the soldiers. And not may masculine ones come out with his lust under among the troops of them.

Official: And not may a rooster go out with a thread, and not with a strap on its legs. And not may a fat-tailed ram go out with a cart under the fat tail of them.

And not [may]
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
And not [may]

gay [people]
תרנגא trngˀ: merriment, joy, gaity
התרנגולין htrngwlyn
תרנגל trngl: rooster
a rooster

come out [publicly]
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
יוצאין ywṣˀyn
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
go out

with their flirting,
ב־ b-: in; חוטא ḥwṭˀ: flirt, seduction; חוטי ḥwṭy: sinning
בחוטין bḥwṭyn
ב־ b-: with; חוט ḥwṭ: thread, strap
with a thread,

and not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
and not

with [their] love
ב־ b-: with; רצה rṣh: love, satisfy, desire
ברצועות brṣwˁwt
ב־ b-: with; רצועה rṣwˁh: strap
with a strap

among the soldiers.
ש־ š-: which; ב־ b-: among; רגלא rglˀ: foot-soldier, infantryman
שברגליהם šbrglyhm
ש־ š-: which; ב־ b-: on; רגל rgl: foot, leg
on its legs.

And not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
And not

[may] masculine [ones]
זכר zkr: male, masculine
הזכרים hzkrym
זכר zkr: ram
[may] a [fat-tailed] ram

come out
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
יוצאין ywṣˀyn
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
go out

with [his] lust
ב־ b-: with; עגלה ˁglh: cart, carriage
בעגלה bˁglh
ב־ b-: with; עגלה ˁglh: cart, carriage
with a cart [?]

under [among]
ש־ š-: which; תחת tḥt: below, under
שתחת štḥt
ש־ š-: which; תחת tḥt: below, under
under

the troops
יהלא yhlˀ: band, troop, squad
האליה hˀlyh
אליה ˀlyh: tail, fat-tail
the fat tail

of them.
של šl: belonging to, of; הן hn: they
שלהן šlhn
של šl: belonging to, of; הן hn: they
of them.

Shabbat 5:4.c

Shabbat 5:4.d

Encrypted: And not may a soldier come out with sexual favors. And not may a lusty one come out with fellation. And not a sexually unrestrained one with being exposed while bending over. And not with their love among the servant troops.

Official: And not may a ewe go out with their genitalia showing. And not may a calf go out bent by a yoke. And not a cow with the skin of a boar. And not with a strap between its horns.

And not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
And not

[may] a soldier
רגלא rglˀ: foot-soldier, infantryman
הרחלים hrḥlym
רחל rḥl: ewe
[may] a ewe

come out
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
יוצאות ywṣˀwt
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
go out

with [sexual] favors.
חנן ḥnn: caress, favor; חן ḥn: loveliness, coquette
חנונות ḥnwnwt
חן ḥn: bosom, genitalia
[with their] genitalia [showing??].

And not
אין ˀyn: no, not
ואין wˀyn
אין ˀyn: no, not
And not

[may] a lusty [one]
גהיל ghyl: lusty, libidinous; גהלא ghlˀ: amorous
העגל hˁgl
עגל ˁgl: calf
[may] a calf

come out
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
יוצא ywṣˀ
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
go out

with fellation [??].
ב־ b-: with; גמע gmˁ: sink into, immerse, swallow, give to drink
בגימון bgymwn
ב־ b-: with; גום gwm: bent, joint
bent [by a yoke?].

And not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
And not

a [sexually] unrestrained [one]
פרע prˁ: loosen, unrestrained, make naked
פרה prh
פרה prh: cow
a cow

with being exposed
ב־ b-: with; עור ˁwr: bared, exposed
בעור bˁwr
ב־ b-: with; עור ˁwr: skin, hide
with the skin

[while] bending over [???].
כפר kpr: rub, bend, arch over
הקפר hqpr
קפר qpr: boar
of a boar [???].

And not
לא : not
ולא wlˀ
לא : not
And not

with [their] love
ב־ b-: with; רצה rṣh: love, satisfy, desire
ברצועה brṣwˁh
ב־ b-: with; רצועה rṣwˁh: strap
with a strap

among
ש־ š-: which; בין byn: among
שבין šbyn
ש־ š-: which; בין byn: between
between

the servant [troops].
גרעון grˁwn: boy, servant
קרניה qrnyh
קרן qrn: horn
its horns [?].

Shabbat 5:4.d

Shabbat 5:4.e

Encrypted: A sexually unrestrained follower of lord Eleazar ben Azariah had once been coming out with his love among the servant troops, which was not among the accepted forms of intercourse there.

Official: A cow of rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah had once been going out with a strap between its horns, which was not in the will of the advisors.

A [sexually] unrestrained [follower]
פרע prˁ: loosen, unrestrained, make naked
פרתו prtw
פרה prh: cow
A cow

of
של šl: belonging to, of
של šl
של šl: belonging to, of
of

lord
רבי rby: rabbi
רבי rby
רבי rby: rabbi
rabbi

Eleazar ben Azariah
אלעזר בן עזריה ˀlˁzr bn ˁzryh: Eleazar ben Azariah
אלעזר בן עזריה ˀlˁzr bn ˁzryh
אלעזר בן עזריה ˀlˁzr bn ˁzryh: Eleazar ben Azariah
Eleazar ben Azariah

had [once] been
היה hyh: be
היתה hyth
היה hyh: be
had [once] been

coming out
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
יוצאה ywṣˀh
יצא yṣˀ: go out, come out
going out

with [his] love
ב־ b-: with; רצה rṣh: love, satisfy, desire
ברצועה brṣwˁh
ב־ b-: with; רצועה rṣwˁh: strap
with a strap

among
ש־ š-: which; בין byn: among
שבין šbyn
ש־ š-: which; בין byn: between
between

the servant [troops],
גרעון grˁwn: boy, servant
קרניה qrnyh
קרן qrn: horn
its horns,

which [was] not
ש־ š-: which; לא : not
שלא šlˀ
ש־ š-: which; לא : not
which [was] not

among the accepted
ב־ b-: among; רצון rṣwn: acceptance, favor
ברצון brṣwn
ב־ b-: in; רצון rṣwn: will, wish
in the will

[forms of] intercourse [there].
חכומי ḥkwmy: coitus; חכומו ḥkwmw: carnal intercourse
חכמים ḥkmym
חכם ḥkm: wise, advisor
of the advisors.

Shabbat 5:4.e

Gay lords mustn’t seduce common soldiers, but only gay or easily abusable troops.

Shabbat 6:1.a

Encrypted: With what may a lord come out in war, and with what may he not come out? Not may come out a lord with these: Not with seducing common guards, and not with seducing any ordinary soldier, and not with any love on a common-birth leader.

Official: With what may a woman go out on Sabbath, and with what may she not go out? Not may go out a woman with these: Not with a strap of wool, and not with a strap of flax, and not with any strap on her head.

With what
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
במה bmh
ב־ b-: with; מה mh: what
With what

[may] a lord
שוע šwˁ: nobleman, prince; איש ˀyš: lord
אשה ˀšh
אשה ˀšh: woman
[may] a woman